Summary of Research Project Results under JSPS FY2001
"Research for the Future Program"

1.Research Institution Kyoto University
2.Research Area Life Sciences
3.Research Field Higher Brain Functions
4.Term of Project FY 1997 〜 FY 2001
5.Project Number 97L00201
6.Title of Project Integrative Studies on Higher Brain Functions and their Pathopysiology Using Neuroimaging

7.Project Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Hiroshi,Shibasaki Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine Professor

8.Core Members

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Hideo,Saji Kyoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Professor
Hidenao,Fukuyama Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine Professor

9.Summary of Research Results

This project was aimed at clarifying the control mechanisms of human higher brain functions and their pathophysiology by employing multidisciplinary non-invasive approaches. (1) We demonstrated the presence of inhibitory areas in the human motor cortics which wer found abnormal in patients with dystonia. By applying SPECT, we showed an important role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and lateral premotor area (PMA) in human gait. It was newly discovered that in Parkinson patients the SMA activity during gait was reduced, which was compensated by increased activation of the lateral PMA when special visual stimulus was presented. (2) We showed participation of the primary and second somatosensory cortices in pain perception, and active participation of the parietal operculum and posterior insula in its emotional aspect. (3) An important role of the inferior parietal cortex and the lateral PMA in sensorimotor integration was demonstrated. (4) We elucidated the role of prefrontal cortex in the execution of Wisconsin card sorting test. (5) we showed am important role of the left posterior inferior temporal lobe in Kanji processing. (6) With the PET for animal use, we successfully obtained imaging of glucose metabolism in rat brain. Furthermore, we synthesized the radioligand specifically bound for the α4β2 submit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and obtained its PET image in rat and human brain. We also developed the non-invasive imaging method for dopamine D2 receptors and benzodiazepine receptors. It is hoped to extend this study further in order to elucidate the neural network involved in various higher brain functions. Noninvasive imaging of receptors and intrinsic substances in the brain is expected to be further advanced so that it can be applied to the investigation of pathological conditions of the brain.

10.Key Words

(1)Higher brain functions、(2)Human、(3)Neuroimaging
(4)Motor control、(5)Sensory perception、(6)Sensorimotor integration
(7)Language、(8)Animal PET、(9)Receptor imaging