Summary of Research Project Results under JSPS FY2001
"Research for the Future Program"

1.Research Institution The University of Tokyo
2.Research Area Integrated Fields
3.Research Field Biomedical Observation and Control
4.Term of Project FY 1997 〜 FY 2001
5.Project Number 97I00401
6.Title of Project Systematic Research and Development of New Techniques for Monitoring and Processing Information of the Living Body

7.Project Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Kunihiko Mabuchi The University of Tokyo, Center for Collaborative Research Professor

8.Core Members

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Tsuneo Chinzei The University of Tokyo, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology Associate Professor
Yusuke Abe The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine Associate Professor
Hiroyuki Matsuura National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Associate Professor

9.Summary of Research Results

The subjects which were investigated in the "Research for the Future Program" and the results that were obtained are as follows:
1) Measurement and control of sensations:
1-1) We developed a) a robot arm manipulation system capable of various movements required during medical treatment, and b) various "smart tools" for medical treatment using a 1 msec visual feedback system (vision-chip) and impedance force feedback control.
1-2) We developed two novel visual systems for use in remote surgery systems. One is a telexistence visual system in which the image at the slave manipulator is projected on fixed screens at the master side, with the position of the video camera being tracked in accordance with the movements of the subject's head. The other is an "object-oriented visual display system" in which the real environment is painted with a retroreflective material and then used as a screen; the video image is then projected on it using a head-mounted projector. We also developed a force-feedback system for use in a master-slave telesurgery system in which the force-feedback system employed a force-reflection servo-type impedance controller; the master-slave manipulation system was able to perform the required tasks.
1-3) We established a method to evoke artificial sensations by electrically stimulating corresponding sensory nerve fibers; we also developed a prototype of an artificial limb system capable of sensing mechanical stimuli and transferring them to the subject so that the subject experiences the stimuli as the corresponding somatic sensations.
1-4) We developed a control system for an artificial heart (AH) system in which the AH system alters its driving condition in accordance with information received from the autonomic nervous system.
2) Development of non-invasive methods for evaluating functions of the living body:
2-1) We developed a non-invasive method for diagnosing stenoses of the coronary artery using a Laser doppler deviation meter to detect extremely tiny vibrations which are generated by turbulence at the stenotic position.
2-2) We developed a data processing system that yields a time series of rapidly-scanned far-infrared images which allows the display of rapidly-changing thermal phenomena of the living body and the evaluation of functions of the autonomic nervous system or the mental stress that underlie fluctuational changes in the skin temperature.
2-3) We also attempted to develop a system for measuring the concentrations of biochemical substances at the subcutaneous tissue non-invasively from outside the body. The system adopted photo-acoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for the detecting system, and was able to measure the concentration of glycohemoglobin in the subcutaneous tissue with adequate resolution.
3) Development of an implantable probe to allow long-term observation of the microcirculation in the living body:
We developed an implantable probe which uses a CCD element and which will allow long-term observation of the microcirculation of tissues inside the body.
4) Analysis of the control mechanism of the biosystem - dispersal and autonomous control at the periphery, and systematic integration at the center:
We attempted to analyze how the peripheral circulation, which is controlled autonomously and individually, is systematically integrated and regulated by the central system. We developed a very small artificial heart (AH) system, and attempted to control the blood flow to each viscera independently using the AH system. Although at present we have only been able to connect the AH system to the kidney, we believe that this will contribute to the analysis of pathophysiology in various circulatory disorders.
5) Reconstruction of tissues and organs from cultured cells (control of the arrangement of cultured cells): We attempted to develop techniques for the reconstruction of tissues or organs from (various kinds of) cultured cells. We developed a method similar to stereo-lithography using photopolymerizing gelatin which is hardened by visible light (wavelength 400 - 500 nm). We also designed a technique to eliminate cells at any given position by irradiation with light of a specific wavelength in order to induce apoptosis. Both of these methods are useful during the reconstruction of tissues and organs from cultured cells.

10.Key Words

(1)bioinformation / bioregulation、(2)virtual reality tele-surgery system、(3)Medical robots
(4)sensor fusion、(5)reconstruction of tissues and organs、(6)microcirculation
(7)autonomous / dispersal control and integrated control、(8)non-invasive measurements、(9)bionic medicine