Program Coordinators: Dr. Richard H. Adamson, United States
Dr. Takashi Sugimura, Japan


The year April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1994, is the fifth year of the five-year program of the US-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program. The objective of the Etiology Program Area is to clarify the causes of human cancers and to determine the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. It has been envisaged that cancer prevention may be achieved eventually through progress in the science of cancer etiology. Four seminars were held during this period in Hawaii.
The first seminar, "Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes and Their roles in Cancer Susceptibility," dealt with xenobiotic enzymes responsible for metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens. The second seminar, "Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes in Cancer," focused on the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in control of the cell cycle and the neoplastic process. The third seminar, "Non-Neoplastic Changes Induced by Carcinogens," described current research on the noncarcinogenic effects induced by carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and viruses at a variety of organ sites. The fourth seminar, "Chemoprevention by Phytochemicals," focused on use of phytochemicals for preventing human cancer.
Three scientists from Japan participated in the exchange program in etiology research, which has as its mission to provide a fundamental basis for understanding cancer causation that, in turn, would help in identifying effective means for preventing or modulating this process.
During the reporting period, the following compounds were shipped from the United States to Japan: 5 mg of 3 hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 5 mg of 9 hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene.