February 13, 1984, Tokyo, Japan

The meeting was called to order by Mr. Koichi Igarashi, Executive Director, JSPS. He briefly explained the background and objective of the meeting, which was held under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) and the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (Monbusho).
Mr. Igarashi reported that the draft budget for the Japanese Fiscal Year (JFY) 1984 (April 1984 - March 31, 1985) that the Japanese government had adopted a few days before, included the budget for the Comprehensive 10-Year Strategy for Cancer Control (hereinafter referred to as the Strategy). The Strategy was one of the major topics for discussion at the NCI-JSPS Joint Steering Committee Meeting (June 1983), in addition to the third 5-year plan of the US-Japan Cancer Research Program (NCI-JSPS Program) to be started in FY 1984.
Mr. Igarashi then introduced Dr. Sadayoshi Kitagawa, Counselor for Science and under the scheme of the Strategy in a complementary way, it seemed necessary for the Joint Steering Committee members to have a briefing by officials of the Japanese agencies involved on the outlines of the 1984 activities under the Strategy. The briefing will be helpful in planning the future activities under the NCI-JSPS Program in order to have an overall perspective of cancer research.
Mr. Igarashi then introduced Dr. Sadayoshi Kitagawa, Councillor for Science and Technology, MOHW, and Mr. Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Director, International Science Division, Monbusho, who represented their respective agencies to present their future plans under the Strategy. Mr. Igarashi then asked Dr. Kitagawa to serve as chairman of the meeting.
Dr. Richard A. Adamson, Director, Division of Cancer Etiology, National Cancer Institute, and Chairman of the NCI Steering Committee, expressed the appreciation of the NCI Steering Committee to be present at this special meeting and the opportunity to discuss the Strategy in relation with the ongoing NCI-JSPS Program. He reported that Dr. Vincent T. De Vita, Jr., Director, NCI, had expected to attend this meeting; however, due to the recent death of Dr. Henry Kaplan of Stanford University in California, he was unable to attend. Dr. De Vita sent his profound regret for his inability to attend this meeting.
Dr. Kitagawa thanked the participants (see Appendix I-A.) on behalf of the Japanese government for holding this special meeting and the opportunity to present and explain the scheme of the Strategy. He stated that the government had approved the FY 1984 draft budget for the Program on January 25. 1984.
Dr. Kitagawa stated that the general outline of the Strategy has been developed, but the specific and detailed implementation of the Strategy has not yet been fully decided by the responsible agencies. He also acknowledged the great success of the NCI-JSPS Program during the past 10 years and hoped that the Strategy will complement the existing cooperation between Japanese and American cancer researchers.
Dr. Kitagawa presented an overview pf the Strategy for Cancer Control (see Appendix I-B), which was approved by the Cabinet Council for Cancer Control in June 1983. He also presented a general outline of the program of the MOHW and the budget for FY 1984 to implement the Strategy (see Appendices I-C and I-D).
Dr. Kitagawa stated that the Strategy will be implemented by MOHW, Monbusho, and the Science and Technology Agency (STA). The primary responsibility of MOHW is to improve the health of the Japanese people and that the National Cancer Center, under the jurisdiction of MOHW, will spearhead the cancer program. The Monbusho will support academic and basic research in the universities, medical schools, and biomedical research institutions. STA will be responsible for the support of new technologies related to cancer, particularly at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. He stated that the three agencies would coordinate and cooperate in the support of domestic cancer research and also promote international cooperation.
The Prime Minister has stressed the importance of international cooperation and there had been discussions between President Reagan and Prime Minister Nakasone, during their November 1983 meeting, regarding cooperation between the U.S. and Japan (see Item 5, (2) of Appendix I-B).
Dr. Kitagawa stated that Monbusho had been supporting cooperation in cancer research under the NCI-JSPS Program through JSPS. He further stated that MOHW would support new cooperative efforts between the U.S. and Japan, taking into account the present NCI-JSPS Program.
The main intents are to promote more cancer research in Japan by forming new research project teams and to invite American and other foreign scientists to join these research teams by providing short and long-term fellowships (1 to 2 years) (see Item 5, (2) of Appendix I-B). This is a new venture for Japan and MOHW would like to have more cooperation with foreign scientists. In addition, Dr. Kitagawa stated that Japanese scientists would be sent by MOHW to the U.S. and other foreign countries on short and long-term bases. He had some preliminary discussions with Dr. Philip Schambra, Fogarty International Center, NIH, on the subject of exchanging scientists and he would appreciate any comments from the NCI Steering Committee.
The FY 1984 budget will be approximately $20 million for the Strategy. Dr. Kitagawa thanked the Joint Steering Committee for their attention and interest in the Program.
Mr. Hasegawa, speaking for Monbusho, stated that Monbusho, as well as MOHW, would be involved to a great degree in the Strategy. In accordance with the 1984 budget, Monbusho will allocate various funds to universities. Monbusho’s future plans include the establishment of several new research centers at universities, as well as the increase of the number of researchers related to the Strategy. Monbusho also will have grants-in-aid earmarked for priority research project areas of the Strategy, and in this connection, five or six research project teams will be formed, members of which will be mostly from universities.
In the international cooperation area, one of the Monbusho’s policies is to reinforce the activities of the ongoing NCI-JSPS Program in the ways of holding new type of meetings, etc. There are other types of international cooperation programs for which Monbusho will have new responsibility; one is for inviting foreign researchers and the other is for dispatching Japanese researchers abroad.
Dr. Hasegawa stated that Monbusho’s program for inviting researchers would be a bit different from that of MOHW. The Monbusho plan includes various types of visits, ranging from short to long-term for joint research collaboration with university scientists in Japan.
The program for dispatching Japanese researchers or study teams abroad is aimed to allow them to have close liaison with cancer research centers and institutes in foreign countries, as well as to accomplish cooperative study on specific themes with foreign researchers. Since these cooperative studies might have relations with activities under the NCI-JSPS Program, careful coordination between the Strategy and the NCI-JSPS Program may be necessary.
The project teams related to the priority areas have not yet been established and the specific guidelines have not yet been decided. Mr. Hasegawa asked the Joint Steering Committee members for their suggestions and recommendations that would be helpful in the implementation of the Strategy.
Questions and comments were then requested from the Joint Steering Committee.
Dr. Saul Schepartz asked which type of U.S. investigators would be invited to work in Japan. He stated that many senior scientists would find it difficult to spend long periods of time in Japan, away from their own laboratories.
Dr. Kitagawa responded by saying that from the budgetary standpoint both junior and senior investigators could be supported. However, he hoped that a number of junior investigators would be able to spend a year or two in Japan to collaborate with Japanese scientists.
Dr. Robert Miller stated that Dr. Roswell Boutwell would be coming to Japan in the near future as the Director of Research at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima for a period of two years. He asked if Dr. Boutwell, an eminent scientist in one of the six areas of interest under the Strategy and working with Japanese investigators, would be an example for the Program.
Drs. Kitagawa and Sugimura replied by saying that since Dr. Boutwell will be coming to Japan under a different auspices, partly supported by the MOHW, it would be a rather difficult problem to involve Dr. Boutwell in two different programs and funding sources.
Dr. Sugiumura further stated that Dr. Boutwell is a widely recognized senior investigator, but he will already be involved with RERF. It may not be appropriate for him to be supported under a different program. However, Dr. Sugimura stated that Dr. Boutwell is the type, and has the stature as a senior investigator, who would have the qualifications and be desirable for the Strategy.
Dr. Miller then stated there are six priority research areas which are listed on Item 4, (2), 2) of Appendix I-B. He asked what would happen if one of the priority areas is not productive and fades, while another research area becomes prominent.
Dr. Kitagawa stated that since the Strategy will be in effect for ten years, the Council of Cancer Control Specialists and the Cabinet Council for Cancer Control will review and evaluate the progress of the implementation every three or five years and then the priority areas may be modified or expanded to cover new research areas. The original plan has been designed to be general and covers most areas of research which are currently productive.
Dr. Adamson stated that he attended a special meeting in September 1983 in Japan to discuss the outline of the Strategy. He was very pleased with the remarkable progress made by the MOHW and Monbusho. He further stated that it is important to review the overall plans and the priority research areas, thus adopting or adding new areas. He also stated that consideration be given to the coordination of technology and instrumentation. He was particularly pointing out the use of super computers in biomedical research. He hoped that the Strategy would be complementary to the NCI-JSPS Program and unnecessary duplication should be avoided.
Dr. Kitagawa agreed with Dr. Adamson’s comments about the relations between the NCI-JSPS Program and the Strategy.
Dr. Sugimura said that the suggestion of the use of super computers for biomedical research is an excellent idea and desirable for cooperation. He asked if other US-Japan cooperative programs are already supporting the application of super computers.
Dr. Adamson replied that he thinks there is some cooperation between the U.S. and Japan on the development of super computers for applications in a few fields. He stated that it would be timely for the use of super computers for biomedical research, particularly in genetics research.
Dr. Sugimura pointed out that the University of Tokyo and the Los Alamos Laboratories have had a large-scale cooperation on DNA sequence studies. Also, the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) and several Japanese researchers are involved in such studies. He noted that some coordination with related institutes should be made before studies on this topic start.
Dr. Richard Hodes asked if one the priority research areas are identified, will multiple research groups be invited to apply for funding support or whether a single institution would be directly selected for the study of a particular problem.
Dr. Sugimura addressed Dr. Hodes’ question by stating that situations were at a preliminary stage and discussions on how to implement the Strategy has not yet taken place among persons concerned. He believes that through previous experience in the NCI-JSPS Program, an approach by a single institution seems more efficient than two or more institutions, but that such matters would be dealt with on a case by case basis.
Dr. Miller asked if the category of treatment methods includes the application of statistics in clinical trials. The NCI-JSPS Program has included statistics and epidemiology in its research area.
Dr. Sugano stated that there are possibi]ities for inviting American experts in the application of statistics in clinical trials. Dr. Miller asked about Japanese support of research in the U.S. (item 5, (2) of Appendix I-B).
Dr. Sugimura responded by giving a specific example; namely, the joint study between laboratories in Japan and Hawaii on the separation and purification of tumor promoters from seaweed, and for cooperative studies on the uses of these newly isolated compounds.
Dr. Sugano stated that it may be somewhat difficult to have senior American scientists come to Japan and there is a problem of how to provide for them for long periods of time.
Dr. Adamson stated that it is important that a senior investigator not be isolated in. one laboratory and the Japanese should utilize his expertise by interaction with other laboratories and investigators, in order to facilitate broad usage of the investigator’s knowledge.
Dr. Sugimura suggested that in the case of Dr. Boutwell, it may be possible to extend his stay in Japan for one year beyond his two years at RERF, under the new Cancer Strategy, and utilze his expertise.
Dr. Schepartz stated that it is customary for a senior American investigator to have sabbatical leave. Therefore, it is very possible for one to apply for such a senior fellowship and be provided with one-half of his regular salary and travel expenses.
Dr. Kitagawa expressed his interest in this approach and would appreciate consulting with the NCI-JSPS Steering Committee when a specific case or application evolves in the future.
Dr. Sugimura stated that the planners of the Strategy have given thought to the person on a sabbatical leave and each applicant or invitee will be considered on a case by case basis. MOHW will be able to make special provision to take advantage of investigators on sabbatical leave.
Dr. Adamson stated that the Fogarty International Center, NIH, and the NCI could be of help in publicizing the exchange program and would also like to assist the Japanese agencies in any way. Dr. Kitagawa responded by saying that his agency would appreciate having the opportunity for future consultation.
Dr. Sugimura stated that the Strategy will be starting its first year on April 1, 1984. This does not provide ample time to make detailed plans for the exchange of scientists. Therefore, for the first year of the Strategy, the exchanges might have to depend upon discussions among individual scientists, and if good candidates are available, they would be invited.
Dr. Omata and others brought up the question of lodgings, subsistence allowance, and education of children of the exchange scientists from foreign countries.
Dr. Kitagawa replied that the Japanese group has been thinking about the living conditions for foreign scientists. Since housing is a very expensive item, the Japanese budget must take this into consideration in setting the stipend and living allowance. The agencies will make their best effort to do everything possible.
Dr. Yuichi Yamamura reported that housing conditions at universities have greatly improved, during the past five to ten years, since the number of foreign students and scientists have been increasing in Japan. He feels that there are now less problems concerning housing. The Japanese agencies will provide for good housing and laboratory facilities.
Dr. Miller believes that the recruitment of senior and junior investigators should be complementary, i.e. during a short interval a senior scientist might plan studies to be carried out over a year or two by a good young junior investigator on his or her staff.
Dr. Sugimura stated that this is a good idea and the experience gained through the NCI-JSPS Program should be considered and used advantageously.
Dr. Miller stated that the invitation to foreign scientists might stress exceptional research opportunities and the development of particular projects of mutual interest. Dr. Sugimura responded by saying that specific cooperative research subjects should be discussed beforehand in order to invite the best individuals. He also believes that during the first year of the Strategy, the rules for selection should not be too restrictive to gain experience through trial.
Dr. Adamson stated that the Strategy can be publicized at cancer meetings in the U.S., e.g. the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Association for Cancer Research. If the Japanese could provide the basic information, it may be possible to get people interested in the exchange for 1984 and 1985.
Dr. Sugimura stated that it may be too early at this time, since there are still some problems associated with the allocation of funds to the projects. The MOHW will have to be more specific about each segment of the Strategy. Dr. Adamson responded by saying that even if the Japanese implementation plan is still being formulated, preliminary announcements could be made at the meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. He offered his assistance to the MOHW.
Dr. Kitagawa thanked the participants for the lively discussion and suggestions. He stated that he would appreciate the Committee’s assistance in the future. First of all, the Japanese agencies must formulate and finalize their plans. He also thanked the JSPS staff for inviting the MOHW and Monbusho to the meeting.
Dr. Adamson thanked Dr. Kitagawa and Mr. Hasegawa for their presentations of the overall program and the documents given to the NCI Steering Committee. He also expressed the Committee’s appreciation for the free and informal discussion of the Strategy. He wished them success in achieving their goals.
The meeting adjourned at 12:00 noon.

Respectfully submitted,

Robert R. Omata, Ph.D.

10:00-12:00 am, Feb. 13, 1984
Hotel New Otani, Tokyo

I. The U.S. Participants

Dr. Richard A. Adamson
Director, Division of Cancer Etiology
National Cancer Institute

Dr. Richard J. Hodes
Chief, Immunotherapy Section
Immunology Branch
Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis
National Cancer Institute

Dr. Robert W. Miller
Chief, Clinical Epidemiology Branch
Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention
National Cancer Institute

Dr. Saul A. Schepartz
Deputy Director
Division of Cancer Treatment
National Cancer Institute

Dr. Robert R. Omata
Executive Secretary
US-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program
Office of International Affairs
National Cancer Institute

II. Japanese Participants

Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Mr. Yoshikazu Hasegawa
Director, International Science Division,
Science and International Affairs Bureau

Mr. Tadashi Amemiya
Coordinator for International Science Programs,
International Science Division,
Science and International Affairs Bureau

JSPS Program Coordinators

Dr. Takashi Sugimura
Director, National Cancer Center
Research Institute

Dr. Yuichi Yamamura
President, Osaka University

Dr. Yoshio Sakurai
Director, Cancer Chemotherapy Center
Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research

Dr. Haruo Sugano
Director, Cancer Institute
Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research

Ministry of Health and Welfare

Dr. Sadayoshi Kitagawa
Counselor for Science and Technology,
Minister’s Secretariat

Dr. Tomohisa Shimoda
Director, Life Science Office,
General Affairs Division,
Minister’s Secretariat

JSPS Representatives

Mr. Koichi Igarashi
Executive Director

Dr. Fuminori Sakai
Executive Director

Mr. Akira Tabohashi
Head, Administration Department

Mr. Yuichi Katsuya
Head, Program Department

Mr. Nagahide Onozawa
Head. Research Cooperation Division

June 7th, 1983 Decision of the Cabinet Council for Cancer Control

Cancer control is a subject faced not only by Japan but countries worldwide and the people of Japan very much hope that positive action of the Government be taken.
Accordingly the Government has accepted the report prepared by the Council of Cancer Control Specialists and, based on the attached document entitled “Comprehensive 10-Year Strategy for Cancer Control”, has committed itself to giving the utmost priority to the realization of cancer control.

Comprehensive 10-Year Strategy for Cancer Control

1 Basic Principle of Comprehensive Strategy
(1) Through studies on oncogenes, carcinogenic agents and tumor promoting agents there has been rapid progress in research concerning the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This strategy has been formulated so that knowledge can be gathered both from Japan and abroad and effective financing can be made available, all of which will have a considerable impact on cancer research and will dramatically promote the research “ work directed towards elucidation of the essential nature of cancer.
(2) It is the objective of this strategy to aim for a solution of the nature of cancer by giving priority to research. However, due to the nature of the problem, it is not realistic to expect to find a solution in a short time. Therefore, this plan has been made so that the problem can be viewed over a medium-long term of 10 years.
(3) With those people suffering from cancer in mind, the intention is that this strategy should operate in consonance with countermeasures against cancer presently in effect for their reinforced implemention.
2 Objectives of Strategy
The strategy objectives are to clarify the nature of cancer over a 10-year period and to have the results of the research done reflected in prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
3 Basic Plan for the Achievement of Objectives
(1) To establish priority research subjects.
(2) To promote both intensive and diversified research.
(3) To train and employ young research staff.
(4) To promote international cooperation with the emphasis on that between Japan and the United States. (5) To provide a supplementary back-up system for the supply of experimental materials.
4 The Establishment of Priority Research Subjects
(1) The Present Situation of Cancer Countermeasures and the Future Course
1) Achievements such as the reduction in the number of deaths caused by stomach and uterine cancers have been obtained through the present countermeasures including dissemination of correct knowledge with regard to cancer, health diagnoses, the provision of medical facilities, and the training of researchers and specialist technicians together with ‘the promotion of research. However, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis have not been fully clarified and this constitutes a considerable obstacle which must be surmounted before cancer can be controlled.
2). In order for dramatical advances in research, which forms the basis for countermeasures against cancer, to be realized, the level of general research has to be raised and priority given to further research into those areas regarded as critical. The present situation as far as research is concerned can be summarized as follows.
1. Recent progress in recombinant DNA technology, monoclonal antibody techniques and the like has made possible cancer research on the gene level. As a result there have been rapid developments of new areas of research centered on that into oncogenes and significant strides have been made towards discerning the essential nature of cancer. Moreover, the results of this research work can be regarded as important contributing factors not only for the elucidation of the nature of cancer but for its prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
2. Clarification of the gene products thereafter can lead to application for high risk group screening. Furthermore, through the research into the control of the expression of oncogenes and methods or materials inactivating their products, roads can be opened for the development of new methods for the treatment of cancer
3. With research into the human leukemia and hepatitis viruses, it will become possible to prevent, diagnose and treat human T cell leukemia and liver cancer, respectively.
4. As a result of research on tumor promoting agents and materials inhibiting carcinogenesis (vitamins, etc.) present in daily life, together with the prediction of the carcinogenecity of industrial chemicals and the intensified promotion of steps to protect the workers from exposure to these chemicals, it will be possible to prevent the occurrence of cancer (primary prevention).
5. With the help of X-rays, endoscope examinations and cytodiagnoses, early detection of cancer (secondary prevention) is being practised. Following further development of high-efficiency early detection methods with higher diagnostic accuracy while reducing the degree of pain and exposure to radiation, it will become possible for the early detection of cancer to be achieved in even more cases.
6. The mass examinations, centered on stomach and uterine cancers, are implemented methodically and have proved quite effective. However, with the systematization of data compilation, improvements can be achieved in the efficiency and accuracy of these mass examinations. Moreover, with the development of new mass examination methods for lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer and pancreas cancer, all of which are tending to increase in incidence, these too can also be subject to early detection.
7. In the sphere of cancer radiotherapy, high LET (Linear Energy Transfer) radiation and hypoxemic cell sensitizers are said to be effective for treating hypoximic cells for which radiation treatment as yet has not shown many results. However, new technologies like the development of a method for combining radiation with heat therapy are appearing, and by promoting them it will be possible to improve the curative ratio of non-surgical treatments.
8. As for cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy, because of recombinant DNA technology and cell technology, developments in anti tumor drugs and immunomodulators have shown remarkable progress. Particularly with the clarification of the relationship between oncogenes and cancer specific antigens, specific phenotypes for tumor cells, chromosome abnormalities and so on, highly significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer are possible.
(2) Priority Research Subjects
1) Based on the present situation in Japan with regard to cancer research as described above, and in consideration of the rapid advances expected internationally, a number of important recognized fields of study have been delineated. The priority areas of research and the actual research subjects related to the said areas, which are aimed at discerning the essential nature of cancer and having the results attained reflected in prevention, diagnosis and treatment, are as follows.
a. Clarification of the Nature of Cancer with Reference to Oncogenes
i Research concered with human oncogenes.
ii Research into human viral carcinogenesis.
iii Research related to cancer biology through analysis of chromosomes.
iv Research into the genetic epidemiology of cancer.
b. Tumor Promotion and Inhibition of Carcinogenesis
i Research on tumor promotion and its control.
ii Research concerned with early detection of the biological effects of carcinogenic agents.
c. Development and Systematization of Early Detection Methods
i Research concerning the development of new technologies for early diagnosis.
ii Research related to the development of mass screening systems for other cancers than those of the stomach and uterus.
iii Research concerned with applying cancer examination data to health management.
d. Development of New Methods of Cancer Control
i Research concerned with the application of oncogene products to diagnosis and treatment.
ii Research into the development of chemotherapy in accordance with new theories.
iii Research related to the development and application of ultramodern technology for radiation therapy.
e. Research and Application of Immunomodulators
i Research concerning mechanisms of immunomodulation and immunomodulators.
ii Research related to the development of chemically synthesized adjuvants.
iii Research into the application of monoclonal antibodies.
2) Of the research subjects listed above, and in consideration of the advances so far made, the following priority research subjects should be the first to be started within the present 10-year plan.
No. 1 Research related to human oncogenes.
No. 2 Research into human viral carcinogenesis.
No. 3 Research on tumor promotion and its control.
No. 4 Research concerning the development of new technologies for early diagnosis.
No. 5 Research concerning the development of treatment methods in accordance with new theories.
No. 6 Research into mechanisms of immunomodulation and immunomodulators.
5 Means of Implementation
(1) Research Implementation Methods and Provision of Research Structure
1) In order for cancer research to progress rapidly, expertise should be gathered from domestic and foreign sources and not only individual researcher but the relevant ministries, agencies and research organizations are to fully cooperate with one another, both nationally and internationally, for the mutual benefit of all concerned. For the implementation of research for this strategy special research themes are to be established, intensive and diversified research carried out, and the promotion of project research intensified.
2) The themes are to be selected from those included in the priority research subjects. More specifically, they should be themes based on areas of research which have shown rapid progress recently or which have not been adequately dealt with so far, and where definite results are foreseeable within 10 years with intensive research.
3) As well as reinforcing cancer research the following measures are to be promoted. Particulary, with regard to recruiting gifted scientists necessary to promote intensive and diversified research, it is essential that young researchers are trained and employed and increasingly more post doctoral fellowships and research resident programs must be provided.
1. With emphasis on the priority research fields stable research financing is to be ensured.
2. The provision of a comprehensive and systematic educational and research structure is to be promoted.
3. High quality research equipments are to be provided.
4. The training and employment of young researchers is to be promoted.
(2) Strengthening International Cooperation
With regard to cancer research hitherto Japan has cooperated with WHO on a multilateral basis and on a bilateral basis, for example, with the United States through the implementation of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program. There has been interchange of researchers and exchange of research data and, in accordance with their various objectives, results have been forthcoming.
In the future too, international cooperation is to be actively promoted on the lines indicated below, particularly with the United States where results from research work can well be expected.
1) The implementation of joint international research by Japanese and foreign researchers centered on the priority research subjects.
2) The holding of international symposia and the exchange of research results.
3) With regard to research being implemented abroad, the dispatch of researchers for short and long term periods and positive participation in the said research.
4) The invitation of eminent researchers from abroad (especially the United States), for the improvement of the level of research in Japan, ensuring a suitable environment in which foreign researchers can work and providing reception system for them.
5) In cases where a theme can be researched more effectively in a foreign country (especially the United States), to consign work to the foreign research organization and as occasion demands to have Japanese researcher participation.
6) The promotion of investigative research into the particular characteristics of cancers seen in various parts of the world.
(3) Provision and Substantiation of Support for Research Compared with other countries like the United States Japan lags far behind with regard to the formulation of a viable support structure including the systematized and stable provision of high quality materials essential for cancer research. In order to ameliorate this situation the following steps are to be taken.
1) Development and Supply of DNA, Cells, Tissues and Animals
1. The development. Identification, maintenenace and supply of transplantable strains and culture lines of human tumors as gene resources.
2. The development, maintenance and supply of monoclonal antibodies for analysis of the products of human oncogenes.
3. The adequate procurement and supply of human materials.
4. The development of laboratory animals as human cancer models.
2) Furnishing of Technology and Development of Apparatus of Research Advancement
1. The structural analysis of human DNA (tumor related part) by automatic apparatus.
2. The systematization of protein microanalysis for oncogene isolation.
6 Evaluation and Revision of Strategy
The “Comprehensive 10-Year Strategy for Cancer Control” is aimed at achieving its results within 10 years and is designed for promoting intensive research into the priority research subjects during that period. However, for continuous evaluation of the progress of this strategy it is necessary to review the on-going situation in the following ways.
(1) The evaluation and revision of the whole strategy at intervals of 3-5 years based on the progress made in the priority research and other research.
(2) With regard to the research subjects, a progress evaluation each year and the implementation of necessary measures.
7 Others
(1) Guarantee of Stable Finances and Flexible Application Stable financing from government revenue and private funds is to be guaranteed to defray the necessary expenses for the implementation of this strategy. The finanacial resources thus provided are to be used in a flexible manner.
(2) Consideration for Patients
The main objective of this strategy is research into the essential nature of cancer. However, at the same time the countermeasures already underway are to be actively pursued through the development of new technology and drugs for the prevention and treatment of cancer as it occurs and through the perfection of mass examination methods. Research shall also be performed on follow-up methods for patients released from the hospital and on treatment of terminal cases.
Moreover, as far as research work is concerned, safety is to be ensured regarding the gathering of samples from patients and at the practical application level. Attention is to be paid to ethical standards so that, for example, consideration is to be extended at all times to the patient.
(3) Activating the Private Sector
This strategy is to be promoted through the cooperation of the authorities, the educational institutions and the private sector. Notably, hitherto the development of drugs, medical care equipment and research equipment has been realized by private enterprise. In the future, too, this vitality and desire for innovation is to be maintained and augmented together with the programs to encourage these activities.
(4) Reports
With the implementation of this strategy information concerning its progress is to be collected by the Council of Cancer Control Specialists and reported to the Cabinet Council for Cancer Control.











1. Research expenses in priority research subjects
(1) 6 research subjects (MOHW, Monbusho)
(2) Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (STA)
2. Substantiation of research facilities
(1) Establishment of a Tumor and Gene Research Department at the National Cancer Center (MOHW)
(2) Substantiation of Kyushu University Tumor Research Center and cancer research laboratories of other national universities (Monbusho)
(3) Substantiation of the recombinant genes laboratory of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (STA)
3. Training and employ of young researchers
(1) MOHW 30 research residents
(2) Monbusho 12 research fellows
4. Promotion of international cooperation
(1) Invitation of foreign researchers
MO HW 20 researchers
Monbusho 12 researchers
(2) Dispatch of Japanese researchers to foreign countries
MOHW 10 researchers
(3) U.S.-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program (Monbusho)
5. Provision of research back-up systems (supply of materials)
(1) Provision of a gene unit bank at the National Institute of Health (MOHW)
(2) Establishment of a laboratory for preservation of cancer cells at Tohoku University (Monbusho)
(3) Survey on systems for collecting, preserving and supplying genes and cells (STA)
(4) Development of general basic technology (STA)

Note: MOHW = Ministry of Health and Welfare
Monbusho = Ministry of Education, Science and Culture
STA = Science and Technology Agency