Summary of Research Project Results under JSPS FY2003
"Research for the Future Program"

1.Research Institution Mie University
2.Research Area Life Sciences
3.Research Field Mechanisms of the Advanced Function in Insects and Proposal of New Insectech
4.Term of Project FY 1999 - FY 2003
5.Project Number 99L01204
6.Title of Project Identification, Activity and Mode of Action of Bio-active Molecules from Blood-Sucking and Stinging Insects

7.Project Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Yasuo , Chinzei Mie University, School of Medicine Professor

8.Core Members

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Yasufumi,Ohfune Osaka City University, Graduate School of Science Professor
Masao, Yuda Mie University ,School of Medicine Assistant Professor

9.Summary of Research Results

(1) Novel bioactive molecules were identified from the salivary glands of blood sucking insects, anopheline mosquito and kissing bug, and tick. These molecules include four anticoagulants, two platelet activation inhibitors and four phase contact activation inhibitors. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms of each molecule.
(2) Maralia parasite develop ookinete, midgut sporozoite and salivary sporozoite in the vector anopheline mosquito which invade into the specific host cell, mosquito midgut, mosquito salivary gland and animal liver cell. We identified some molecules essential for invasion to the host cell, four ookinete, one midgut and three salivary gland molecules by the analyses of EST of each stage parasites and phenotype of gene knockout parasites.
(3) Neurotoxic and paralytic components from the venom of stinging and biting insects were analyzed and characterized by a combination of highly sensitive analytical methods. The venom components consisted of a mixture of small molecules such as amines, amino acids, polyamines, nucleic acids, organic acids and peptides in nano to pico molar level. More than 15 neuroactive peptides which paralyze insects were isolated from scorpion venom. Almost of all chemical components in wasp venom were characterized and a mixture of organic and inorganic components were found to induce long-term paralytic activity to a target insect. In addition, organic synthesis was employed not only for the structure determination of the newly characterized molecules but also for the development of lead compounds for neurosciences.

10.Key Words
(1)stinging and biting insect  (2)neurotoxic components  (3)organic sysnthesis 
(4)blood sucking insects  (5)tick  (6)bioactive molecules 
(7)maralial parasite  (8)vector  (9)host cell invasion