Summary of Research Project Results under JSPS FY2003
"Research for the Future Program"

1.Research Institution Osaka University
2.Research Area Integrated Fields
3.Research Field Development of Surgical Robot
4.Term of Project FY 1999 - FY 2003
5.Project Number 99I00901
6.Title of Project Analysis of Musculoskeletal Surgery

7.Project Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Nobuhiko ,Sugano Osaka University ,Graduate School of Medicine Lecturer

8.Core Members

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Kazuo ,Yonenob Osaka Minami National Hospital, Orthopedics Vice President
Takashi ,Mashimo Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine Professor
Naoki ,Suzuki Jikei University, School of Medicine Professor

9.Summary of Research Results

   The following five systems were developed: 1) CT-based navigation system, 2) Laser guidance system. 3) Fracture reduction robotic system, 4) Needle insertion robot, and 5) 4D motion analysis system. The CT-based navigation system was used clinically for spine, hip, and knee surgeries. It was shown to increase the accuracy and safety of surgical procedures. Its performance was enhanced by combining it with a laser guidance system which presents navigational information on the surgical field directly with laser lights. The first version of the laser guidance system consisted of an Optotrak position sensor and three laser emitters. The laser beam shape and direction were controlled arbitrarily with a galvano-mirror scanner. Two fan-shaped beam tracts intersected in a line and drew cross hairs on a target; the center of the cross hairs indicated the entry point for linear surgical tools. After stabilization of this entry point, the alignment of the tools was indicated by parallel laser beams projected onto the guide sleeves. A calibration-free second generation system was further developed. It consisted of a unified construct of a Polaris position sensor camera and two laser emitters. The relative spatial relationship between the sensor and laser emitters was rigidly fixed so that calibration of the laser beam tract was necessary only once in the laboratory. The fracture reduction robotic system consisted of a navigation capability, a radiolucent carbon fiber traction operating table, and the reduction operation robot. For navigation, 2D3D registration using C arm X-ray images was performed, and the fracture reduction path was created from the fracture reduction simulation. The reduction operation robot was operated according to the path. Integration of a needle insertion robot and the CT based navigation was carried out, and a needle was inserted into a pig vertebral body through the pedicles. A 4D motion analysis system to conduct high tibial osteotomy simulations for gonarthrosis taking into account the walking dynamic state of knee joints using MRI or CT was developed.

10.Key Words
(1)Surgical robot   (2)Navigation   (3)Fracture
(4)Osteotomy   (5)Total hip arthroplasty   (6)Image guided surgery
(7)Motion Analysis   (8)Laser   (9)Vertebroplasty