Summary of Research Project Results under JSPS FY2002
"Research for the Future Program"

1.Research Institution The University of Tokyo
2.Research Area Integrated Fields
3.Research Field Environmental Conservation in the Asian Region
4.Term of Project FY 1999 - FY 2002
5.Project Number 00I00601
6.Title of Project A Study on Undesired Effects of Development on Local Societies and Strategies for Their Mitigation

7.Project Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Ryutaro, Ohtsuka The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine Professor

8.Core Members

Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Toru, Shinohara National Museum of Japanese History, Division of Folklore Professor
Takeshi, Matsui The University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture Professor

9.Summary of Research Results

1. Adequate amount of data, in quality and in quantity, were collected by long-term fieldworks. They were opened to any scientists/administrators through newsletters and homepage of this project.
2. Methodologies for seeking the coexistence of development and environmental conservation in local societies have been developed, focusing on the six keywords, i.e. basic human needs, eco-commons, indigenous risk avoidance, minor subsistence, environmental justice and consensus formation.
3. The major findings are summarized as follows.
(1) Development planners should grasp the local society's cultural heritage, including religious minds.
(2) The local societies' mechanisms for environmental conservation, such as eco-commons and indigenous risk avoidance, have been frequently strengthened in the process of development; thus they should be regarded as not the "traditional" means but rather the current and effective ones.
(3) Equality of receiving benefits from environment, the main aspect of environmental justice, has been reduced in the process of development through enlargement of inter-household differences; against this, capacity building and environmental education should be developed.
(4) Poor consensus formation at the planning and applying periods of development plans has caused the local society's (inhabitants') anti-development movements. The consensus formation, which has been less matured in Asian region, should be prioritized.
(5) The occurrence of unexpected situations in the process of development is unavoidable and has occasionally hampered local society's functions and environmental conservation, implying necessity of intermittent evaluation and, in some cases, changes of development plans.
(6) To sum up, healthy development of local societies is indispensable for environmental conservation.

10.Key Words
(1)Development   (2)Environmental conservation   (3)Strategies for mitigation
(4)Basic human needs   (5)Indigenous risk avoidance   (6)Eco-commons
(7)Minor subsistence   (8)Environmental justice   (9)Consensus formation