Summary of Research Project Results Under the JSPS FY2000
"Research for the future Program"



1.Research Institution Osaka University
 
2.University-Industry Cooperative Research Committee 154th Committee on Semiconductor Interfaces and Their Applications
 
3.Term of Project FY1996〜FY2000
 
4.Project Number 96R15401
 
5.Title of Project Developmental Research on New Type Electron Emitter Using Diamond

6.Projetct Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Toshimichi, Ito Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering Professor

7.Core Members

8.Cooperating Researchers

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Akio, Hiraki Kochi Univ. of Technol., Industry-Academics Cooper. Center Professor
Takeshi, Kobayashi Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering Science Professor
Akimitsu, Hatta Kochi Univ. of Technol., Electronic & Photonic Systems Eng. Assoc. Prof.

9.Summary of Research Results

In the present research project, the possibility of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond for electron emitting materials has been investigated from various view points. The main results obtained are as follows. The surface structure and the negative electron affinity of diamond (100) chemisorbed with hydrogen have been understood. The dependence of the electron affinity on the amount of chemisorbed oxygen can be described in terms of the Topping model. The electrical properties of the electrically conducting surface layer have been studied in details. Using these characteristics, we have fabricated two types of plane electron emitters: diode type electron emitter where a high electric field is applied in highly insulating diamond layer, and field electron emitters where a high field is applied in vacuum. In the former case, various fabrication processes including highly insulating layer, thin-layered structure and fine device structure have been developed, which leads to approximately 100% electron emission efficiencies (the ratios of the emission current to the driving current) at very high fields on the order of 107 V/cm. The mechanism of the high efficiency performance can be explained in terms of impact ionization processes of carriers at the high fields, which is theoretically supported by Monte Carlo simulations. It is also emphasized that high-quality diamond layers can be grown at usual growth rates of =1 μm/h. On the other hand, in the case of the field electron emitter using diamond, the form in nanometer-sized diamond particles has been found to be very suitable to large-area and low-temperature fabrication. Electron emitting devices using such diamond films have been found to be operated at low averaged fields <10V/μm and to yield emission currents> 1 mA/cm2.

10.Key Words

(1)electron emitter、(2)CVD diamond、(3)highly insulating diamond
(4)ultra-fine diamond particle、(5)negative electron affinity、(6)hydrogenated surface
(7)diode type electron emitter、(8)plane type electron emitter、(9)field electron emitter

11.References

[Reference Articles]
Author Title of Article
H. Yagyu Intrinsic and Implantation-Induced Defects in CVD Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Physica Status Solidi (a) 154 1996 305-320

Author Title of Article
T. Kita Transient Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy of Synthetic Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 6・3 1996 139-145

Author Title of Article
H. Nishiwaki Heteroepitaxy of GaS and GaSe on Diamond and GaAs Surfaces
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 6・3 1996 147-156

Author Title of Article
J. H. Won Effect of Boron Inclusion on the Quality of Chemical Vapor Deposited Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 6・3 1996 171-180

Author Title of Article
T. Kobayashi Prospect of Semiconducting Diamond Electronics
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 6・4 1996 199-216

Author Title of Article
H. Miyake Effect of Oxygen Additive on Microwave-Plasma for Diamond Film Synthesis Studied by Plasma-Impedance-Measurement
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 35・7B 1996 L936-939

Author Title of Article
S. Suzuki Observation of Capacitance Hunching at the Flat-Band-Voltage in Boron-Doped Diamond Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Structure
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 35・8B 1996 L1081-L1084

Author Title of Article
H. Yagi Hydrogen and Deuterium Profile in Homoepitaxially Grown CVD Diamonds by ERDA Method
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 118 1996 318-321

Author Title of Article
T. Kita Electron-Beam Electroreflectance Spectroscopy of Semiconductors
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 35・10 1996 5367-5373

Author Title of Article
A. Hatta Characterization and Control of Properties of Diamond Surface and Its Application to Electron Emitter
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Vacuum Society of Japan 39・11 1996 618-625

Author Title of Article
A. Hatta Diamond Film Growth by Pulse-Modulated Magnetoactive Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Thin Solid Films 281-282 1996 264-266

Author Title of Article
H. Makita Ultrahigh Particle Density Seeding with Nanocrystal Diamond Particles
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Thin Solid Films 281-282 1996 279-281

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Electron Microscopic Analysis of Chemical-Vapour Deposited Diamond Surface by a Novel Method
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Thin Solid Films 281-282 1996 282-284

Author Title of Article
J. H. Won The Investigation of Defect Formation in Chemical Vapor Deposited Diamond Using Photoluminescence by Ultraviolet Synchrotron Radiation
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Physics Letters 69・27 1996 4179-4181

Author Title of Article
H. Suzuki Control of the Plasma and Measurement of Radicals for Diamond Film Synthesis in Vapor Phase
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceedings of 13th Symposium on Plasma Processing AP962301 1996 57-60

Author Title of Article
J. H. Won Photoluminescence Properties of CVD Diamond Excited by Ultra-Violet Synchrotron Radiation
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 423 1996 717-722

Author Title of Article
A. Hiraki Low-Temperature CVD of Diamond and NEA Surface of Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi   1997 179-193

Author Title of Article
S. Sonoda Effect of Nitrogen Incorporation on Electrical Properties of Boron-Doped Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Physics Letters 70・19 1997 2574-2576

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Interfacial Analysis of CVD Diamond on Copper Substrates
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 6 1997 743-746

Author Title of Article
J. H. Won Effects of Remote Hydrogen Plasma Treatment (RHPT) on Ion-Implanted CVD Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 6 1997 1041-1046

Author Title of Article
A. Hiraki Diamond Semiconductor of Negative Electron Affinity - Potential Material for Flat Display Panel -
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Oyo Buturi 66・3 1997 235-241

Author Title of Article
H. Yagi Initial Stage of Bias-Enhanced Diamond Nucleation Induced by Microwave Plasma
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 36・4B 1997 L507-L510

Author Title of Article
Y. Shirakawa Hall Effect Measurement and Band Bending Calculation of Hydrogenated Diamond Thin Films Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 36・6 1997 3414-3417

Author Title of Article
Y. Yun Surface State Density Distribution of Semiconducting Diamond Films Measured from Al/CaF2/I-Diamond Metal-Insulator Semiconductor Diodes and Transistors Deposition
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Applied Physics 82・7 1997 3422-3429

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang Investigation of Distribution of Defects and Impurities in Boron-Doped CVD Diamond Film by Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Thin Solid Films 308-309 1997 279-283

Author Title of Article
H. M. Jeon Large Area Diamond Nucleation on Si(001) Using Magnetoactive Microwave Plasma CVD
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 113-114 1997 244-248

Author Title of Article
J. H. Won Remote Hydrogen Plasma Treatment (RHPT) of Ion Implanted CVD Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 113-114 1997 249-253

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Structural Analysis of Ion-Implanted Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond by Transmission Electron Microscope
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 113-114 1997 254-258

Author Title of Article
Y. Yun Thin Film CaF2 Stabilizing Effect on Single-Crystal Diamond Surface
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 117-118 1997 570-573

Author Title of Article
H. Kawamura Cathodoluminescence Measurement of CVD Diamond Surface
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 117-118 1997 578-581

Author Title of Article
T. Yamamoto Surface Observation of Beta SiC Substrate after Negative Bias Treatment in Diamond Deposition
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 117-118 1997 582-586

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Interface Characterization of Chemical-Vapour-Deposited Diamond on Cu and Pt Substrates Studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 117-118 1997 587-591

Author Title of Article
A. Hatta Electron Emitter Device of NEA Diamond Thin Film
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 117-118 1997 592-596

Author Title of Article
A. Hatta Electrical Properties of Boron-Doped Diamond Films Grown under the Control of Nitrogen Incorporation
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Super Carbon   1998 151-154

Author Title of Article
Y. Yokota Observation of Ultraviolet Cathodoluminescent Band from Boron-Doped Diamond Film Grown Epitaxially on Platinum Single Crystal
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Super Carbon   1998 235-241

Author Title of Article
A. Hatta Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Handbook of Industrial Diamonds and Diamond Films 27 1998 887-899

Author Title of Article
A. B. M. O. Islam Surface Modification of B-Doped Diamond Films by GaS
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・4 1998 271-280

Author Title of Article
H. Tanaka Electrical Stabilization of Diamond MIS Interface by Employing BaF2 Gate Insulator Crystal
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・4 1998 281-288

Author Title of Article
Y. Yokota Temperature Dependence of 248 nm Cathodoluminescence Band from Heavily Boron-Doped Diamond Films Epitaxially Grown on Platinum
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・5 1998 347-354

Author Title of Article
T. Kita Band-Edge Structure of Diamond Films Grown on Silicon
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・5 1998 355-360

Author Title of Article
Y. Yun Electrical Stabilization of Diamond Film Surface for Electronic Device Application
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・5 1998 361-368

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Nitrogen Doping Effects on Electrical Properties of Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 37・10A 1998 L1175-L1177

Author Title of Article
Y. Yun Electrical Stabilization of Diamond MIS Interface and MISFETs by Ultrahigh-Vacuum Process
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 512 1998 217-222

Author Title of Article
M. Nishimura Highly Efficient Electron Emission Diode of Single-Crystalline Chemical-Vapor-Deposition Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 37・9A/B 1998 L1011-L1013

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang Investigation of Surface of Boron-Doped CVD Diamond by Cathodoluminescent Spectroscopy
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 7 1998 748-752

Author Title of Article
Y. Yokota Edge Emission Observedin Heavily Boron-Doped Diamond Films Epitaxially Grown on Platinum
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Physics Letters 73・11 1998 1493-1495

Author Title of Article
Y. Yun Electrical Properties of Al/CaF2/I-Diamond Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor Fabricated by Ultrahigh-Vacuum Process
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 37・11A 1998 L1293-L1296

Author Title of Article
T. Hosomi Role of Xenon Additive in Microwave Plasma-Assisted (H2+CH4) Chemical Vapor Deposition for Diamond Thin Film Growth
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Applied Physics 84・11 1998 281-288

Author Title of Article
Y. Koide Field Emission Characteristics of Non-Doped Polycrystalline Diamond Films Synthesized by MPCVD
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・6 1998 407-413

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Crystalline and Electrical Characteristics of N-Doped Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・6 1998 457-466

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang Fine-Structure Study on First-Order Diamond Raman Line of CVD Diamond Particles
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond Films and Technology 8・6 1998 467-475

Author Title of Article
T. Ito Highly Efficient Electron Emission from Diode-Type Plane Emitters Using Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Single-Crystalline Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Physics Letters 73・25 1998 3739-3741

Author Title of Article
H. Tanaka Improved Stability of Metal-Insulator-Diamond Semiconductor Interface by Employing BaF2 Insulator Film
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 37・12A 1998 L1444-L1447

Author Title of Article
T. Hosomi Role of Xenon Additive in Microwave Plasma-Assisted (H2+CH4) Chemical Vapor Deposition for Diamond Thin Film Growth
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Applied Physics 84・11 1998 6059-6063

Author Title of Article
A. Hatta Electron Emission from Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Israel Journal of Chemistry 38 1998 113-120

Author Title of Article
T. Maki Present Research Status of Semiconducting Diamond Devices
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceedings of the Electronics, Information and System Conference, IEE of Japan 7 1998 15-16

Author Title of Article
T. Ito Development Research on New Type Electron Emitter Using Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
The Production & Technique 51・1 1999 63-66

Author Title of Article
M. Nishimura Highly-Efficient at Electron Emitter of Single-Crystalline CVD Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 7 1999 754-758

Author Title of Article
H. Yagi Surface Hydrogen Densities of Variously Treated CVD Diamond Surfaces
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 137 1999 50-56

Author Title of Article
H. M. Jeon Oxygen Plasma Etching of Carbon Films Unintentionally Deposited on Chamber Walls in Magneto-Active Microwave Chemical Vapor Deposition System
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Vacuum Society of Japan 42・3 1999 217-220

Author Title of Article
A. Hatta Electrical Properties of B-Doped Homoepitaxial Diamond Films Grown from UHP Gas Sources
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 8 1999 1470-1475

Author Title of Article
Y. Yokota Cathodoluminescence of Boron-Doped Heteroepitaxial Diamond Films on Platinum
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 8 1999 1587-1591

Author Title of Article
H. Kawamura Fabrication and Characterization of Planar Diamond Electron Emitters
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 38・4B 1999 2622-2625

Author Title of Article
Y. Yun Electrical Properties of Al/(BaXCa1-X)F2/i-Diamond Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Structures
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 38・4B 1999 2626-2629

Author Title of Article
Y. Yun Highly Improved Electrical Properties of Diamond Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor Prepared by Ultrahigh Vacuum Process
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 38・4B 1999 2640-2645

Author Title of Article
M. Shimomura Crystallinity Evaluation of Phosphorus-Doped N-Type Diamond Thin Film
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Applied Physics 85・7 1999 3931-3933

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Electrical Properties of Surface Conductive Layers of Homoepitaxial Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Applied Physics 85・12 1999 8267-8273

Author Title of Article
T. Ito Electron Emission from Diamond Surfaces
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of the Surface Finishing Society of Japan 50・6 1999 16-21

Author Title of Article
H. M. Jeon Effect of Oxygen Component in Magnet-Active Microwave CH4/He Plasma on Large-Area Diamond Nucleation over Si
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 38 1999 4500-4503

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang Fabrication of Ohmic Contacts to Buried Diamond Layers Using Pt Layer in the Diamond Chemical-Vapor-Deposition Process
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Physics Letters 75 1999 1920-1922

Author Title of Article
T. Sumitomo Fabrication of Diamond Films by Microwave Plasma CVD at Low Hydrogen Concentration
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan 25・1 2000 305-308

Author Title of Article
A. B. M. O. Islam Interface Formation between GaS and CVD Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Surface Science 448 2000 1-10

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond Overgrowth on Platinum Thin Films Deposited on Diamond Substrates
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 39・3A 2000 1286-1290

Author Title of Article
T. Ito Properties of Electron Emitting Diode Fabricated with Single-Crystalline Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings 558 2000 105-110

Author Title of Article
H. Kawamura Fabrication of Planar Diamond Electron Emitters for Flat Panel Displays
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings 558 2000 155-160

Author Title of Article
T. Maki Electronic Properties of Diamond Thin Film for Planar Diamond Electron Emitter Applications
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 159-160 2000 583-587

Author Title of Article
A. B. M. O. Islam Characterization of GaS-Deposited CVD Diamond Films by AES & XPS
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 159-160 2000 588-593

Author Title of Article
T. Maki X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of Diamond Thin Film Surfaces for Electronic Device Application
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 39・6B 2000 L575-L578

Author Title of Article
M. Yokoyama Dependence of the Electron Affinity of Homoepitaxially Grown CVD Diamond on the Amount of Surface Oxygen
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science 162-163 2000 457-463

Author Title of Article
A. Ito Improved Stability of Metal-Insulator-Diamond Semiconductor Interface by Employing CaF2/Thin BaF2 Composite Insulator Film
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 39・8 2000 4755-4756

Author Title of Article
T. Ito Highly Efficient Electron Emitting Diode Fabricated with Single-Crystalline Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 9 2000 1561-1568

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang Growth and Characterization of Hillock-Free High Quality Homoepitaxial Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 9 2000 1650-1654

Author Title of Article
T. Kita Optical Characterization of Synthetic Diamond Films
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceedings of the International Sosiety for Optical Engneering 4086 2000 535-539

Author Title of Article
H. M. Jeon Nucleation-Enhancing Treatment for Diamond Growth over a Large Area Using Magnetoactive Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Applied Physics 88・5 2000 2979-2983

Author Title of Article
T. Hosomi Enhanced Diamond Film Growth by Xe-Added Microwave Plasma CVD
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Thin Solid Films 368 2000 269-274

Author Title of Article
S. Kono Surface Order Evaluation of the Heteroepitaxial Diamond Film Grown on an Inclined β-SiC(001)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 39 2000 4372-4373

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang High-Quality Homoepitaxial Diamond Films Grown at Normal Deposition Rates
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 40・3A 2001 L212-L214

Author Title of Article
S. Kono UHV μ-Electron Evaluation of the CVD Diamond Particles Grown on Si(001)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 10 2001 48-58

Author Title of Article
S. Endo Recovery Treatments for Ion-Induced Defects in High Quality Homoepitaxial CVD Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Diamond and Related Materials 10 2001 322-326

Author Title of Article
S. Kono Secondary-Electron and Field-Emission Spectroscopy / Microscopy Studies of CVD Grown Diamond Particles
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Surface Science   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
B. S. Satyanarayana Filed Emission from Heterostrustured Cathodes Made of Nanoseeded Diamond and Nanodlustered Carbon
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 621 2001 in press

Author Title of Article
H. Murakami Photoemission Properties and Surface Structure of Homoepitaxially Grown CVD Diamond (100) Surfaces
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
S. M. Lee Properties of Thin MgO Films Grown on Single-Crystalline CVD Diamond
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
A. Hiraki Eletron-Emitter Fabricated at Low Temperature by Diamond-Nano-Seeding Technique
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Surface Science   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
N. Jiang Characterization of N-Doped Diamond Films by Transmission Electron Microscopy
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Journal of Crystal Growth   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
C. L. Wang Boron-Doped Diamond Film Homoepitaxially Grown on High-quality Chemical-Vapor- Deposited Diamond (100)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics   2001 in press


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