Summary of Research Project Results Under the JSPS FY2000
"Research for the future Program"



1.Research Institution Tohoku University
 
2.Research Area Life Science
 
3.Research Field Mechanisms of Plant Responses to Environment and Application to Biotechnology
 
4.Term of Project FY1996〜FY2000
 
5.Project Number 96L00604
 
6.Title of Project Molecular approaches for the improvement of productivity and quality of plants by studying nitrogen utilization and photosynthesis

7.Projetct Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Tomoyuki Yamaya Tohoku Univ., Grad. School of Agric. Sci. Professor

8.Core Members

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Hiromichi Morikawa Hiroshima Univ., Fac. of Sci. Professor
Tadahiko Mae Tohoku Univ., Grad. Shool of Agric. Sci. Professor
Hiroki Nakagawa Chiba Univ., Fac. of Horticulture Professor

9.Cooperating Researchers

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Katsura Izui Kyoto Univ., Grad. School of Biostudies Professor
Kunisuke Tanaka Kyoto Pref. Univ., Fac. of Agriculture Professor
Masahiko Saigusa Tohoku Univ., Experimental Farm Professor

10.Summary of Research Results

In order to improve productivity of crops, we obtained following results in the current research term, 2000. 1) Transgenic rice at T3 generation expressing antisense RNA for NADH-GOGAT under the control of CaM35S promoter decreased in the weight of 1000-spikelets. While, transgenic rice overexpressing NADH-GOGAT gene under the control of own promoter increased. 2) Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the contents of GS1 and NADH-GOGAT proteins overlapped with QTLs for yield, senescence, etc. were detected on chromosomes of rice. 3) Super-high yield (10t/ha) was achieved using "Akita63", a new cultivar of rice, according to the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics. 4) Low content of cyt. f in rice chloroplasts caused low photosynthetic rate under high CO2. 5) A cDNA for PEPC-kinase was cloned and the expression system in E. coli was constructed. 6) Transgenic rice expressing antisense RNA for NDP-kinase showed that this enzyme is required for coleoptile elongation.
In relation to the improvement of quality, followings were obtained. 1) Two cDNAs for anion channel which transports nitrate ions were cloned. cis element and trans acting factor which regulate expression of NR gene were identified in the promoter region. These findings are the basis for creation of low nitrate plants. 2) Nitrite reductase is important in the removal of nitrogen dioxide in air. Furthermore, more than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation were detected among 217 plant taxa. 3) Molecular mechanisms for storage of proteins in rice endosperm were analyzed in relation to the production of valuable substances.
Growth test of transgenic rice and evaluation of safety were conducted in the P1-isolated field after an open hearing.

11.Key Words

(1)nitrogen utilization、(2)photosynthesis、(3)productivity
(4)quality of crops、(5)transformation、(6)P1 isolated field
(7)molecular physiology、(8)removal of nitrogen dioxide、(9)QTL analysis

12.References

[Reference Articles]
Author Title of Article
T. Yamaya Comparison of contents for cytosolic-glutamine synthetase and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase proteins in leaves of japonica, indica, and javanica rice plants
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 43 1997 1107-1112

Author Title of Article
N. Hirose Inducible accumulation of mRNA for NADH-dependent glutamate synthase in rice roots in response to ammonium ions
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 38 1997 1295-1297

Author Title of Article
S. Goto Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Sasanishiki, a leading cultivar of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in northern Japan
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Food Production and Environment   1997 839-840

Author Title of Article
H. Inada Existence of three regulatory regions each containing a highly conserved motif in the promoter of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase gene(rpoB)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant J. 11 1997 883-890

Author Title of Article
H. Ishida The large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is fragmented into the 37-kD and 16-kD polypeptides by active oxygen in the lysates of chloroplasts from primary leaves of wheat
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 38 1997 471-479

Author Title of Article
H. Nakano The effect of elevated partial pressures of CO2 on the relationship between photosynthetic capacity and N content in rice leaves
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 115 1997 191-198

Author Title of Article
A. Makino Leaf photosynthesis, plant growth and nitrogen allocation in rice under different irradiances
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Planta 203 1997 390-398

Author Title of Article
A. Makino Growth and N-allocation in rice plant under CO2 enrichment
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 115 1997 199-203

Author Title of Article
T. Mae Physiological nitrogen efficiency in rice: Nitrogen utilization, photosynthesis, and yield potential
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant and Soil 196 1997 201-210

Author Title of Article
N. Tamura The nitrate reductase gene isolated from DNA of cultured spinach cells
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1338 1997 151-154

Author Title of Article
M. Miyawaki Changes in proteasome levels in spinach seeds during imbibition and germination
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 61 1997 998-1001

Author Title of Article
N. Ito Characterization of 26S proteasome α- and β -type and ATPase subunits from spinach and their expression during early stages of seedling
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Mol. Biol. 34 1997 307-316

Author Title of Article
Y. Ueno Regulatory phosphorylation of plant phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxylase: Role of a conserved basic residue upstream of the phosphorylation site
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
FEBS Letters 417 1997 57-60

Author Title of Article
L. -Y. Dong Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of conserved Lys606 residue on catalytic and regulatory functions of maize C4-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 38 1997 1340-1345

Author Title of Article
K. Ishiyama Expression of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase protein in epidermis and exodermis of rice roots in response to the supply of nitrogen
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Planta 204 1998 288-294

Author Title of Article
S. Goto Organization and structure of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase gene in rice plants
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1387 1998 298-308

Author Title of Article
K. Ishiyama Cell specific expression of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase in rice plants
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceed. XIth Int. Cong. Photosynthesis 4 1998 3023-3026

Author Title of Article
H. Morikawa More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant, Cell & Environment 21 1998 180-190

Author Title of Article
G. Arimura Expression of the β-glucuronidase gene introduced into infact leaves at tached to Arabidopsis thaliana plants by particle gun
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Biotechnology 15 1998 109-111

Author Title of Article
Sawasaki Structures of transgene loci in transgenic Arabidopsis plants obtained by particle bombardment: Junction regions can bind to nuclear matrices
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Gene 218 1998 27-35

Author Title of Article
G. Arimura Unidentified nitrogen in the metabolites of nitrogen dioxide in plant leaves
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceed. XIth Int. Cong. Photosynthesis 4 1998 3613-3616

Author Title of Article
M. Takahashi Is nitrite reductase essential in the metabolism of nitrogen in plants?
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceed. XIth Int. Cong. Photosynthesis 4 1998 3617-3620

Author Title of Article
H. Ishida Light-dependent degradation of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in chloroplasts isolated from wheat leaves
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Planta 204 1998 305-309

Author Title of Article
K. Ohashi Gas exchange characteristics in rice leaves grown under the condition physiologically low temperature and irradiances
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 39 1998 1384-1387

Author Title of Article
I. Suzuka Biochemical and immunological characterization of rice homologoues of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 T at binding protein and subunit 4 of human 26S proteasomes subunits
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Mole. Biol. 37 1998 495-504

Author Title of Article
Y. Yanagawa Cloning and sequencing of cDNA from Oriza sativa a homolog to non-ATPas e subunit, MBP1, of 26S proteasome in Arabidopsis thaliana
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Biotechnology. 15 1998 147-150

Author Title of Article
K. Sueyoshi Purification of inactivation factor of phosphoriylated nitrate reductase from Brassica campestris leaves
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Plant Physiol. 153 1998 74-78

Author Title of Article
N. Ogawa Characterization of a maize Ca2+-dependent protein kinase phosphorylating phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 39 1998 1010-1019

Author Title of Article
L. -Y. Dong Cloning, expression, and characterization of a root-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Zea mays: Comparison with the C4-form enzyme
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 39 1998 865-873

Author Title of Article
Y. Ueno Regulatory phosphorylation of maize C4-form PEP carboxylase (PEPC): Antibody detection system and purification of PEPC-protein kinase
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceed. XIth Int. Cong. Photosynthesis 5 1998 3407-3410

Author Title of Article
L. -Y. Dong Molecular evolution of C4-form PEPC in maize: Comparison of primary sequences and kinaetic properties with a newly cloned recombinant root-form PEPC
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceed. XIth Int. Cong. Photosynthesis 5 1998 3411-3414

Author Title of Article
T. Furumoto Cloning of cell-type specific genes in maize leaves and characterization of PEP carboxykinase in bundle-sheath-strands
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Proceed. XIth Int. Cong. Photosynthesis 4 1998 3015-3018

Author Title of Article
H. Kaminaka Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA (accession No. D85763) encoding glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase from rice (Oryza sativa L. )
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 118 1998 331

Author Title of Article
N. Mitsukawa Molecular cloning of a novel glutelin cDNA from rice seeds
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Biotechnology 15 1998 205-211

Author Title of Article
H. Kaminaka Gene cloningand expression of cytosolic glutathione reductase in rice (Oryza sativa L. )
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 39 1998 1269-1280

Author Title of Article
T. Shiina rbcL transcript levels in tobacco plastids are independent of light: reduced dark transcription rate is compensated by increased mRNA stability
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell 10 1998 1713-1722

Author Title of Article
Y. Nakahira Circadian clock-regulated transcription of the psbD light-responsive promoter (psbD LRP) in wheat chloroplasts
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 118 1998 1079-1088

Author Title of Article
T. Hayakawa Quantitative intercellular localization of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase protein in different types of root cells in rice plants
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 119 1999 409-416

Author Title of Article
N. Hirose Okadaic acid mimics nitrogen-stimulated transcription of NADH-glutamate synthase gene in rice cell cultures
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 121 1999 805-812

Author Title of Article
N. Goshima Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from transgenic tobacco expressing antisense NiR mRNA
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Journal 19 1999 75-80

Author Title of Article
H. Ishida Fragmentation of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase by active oxygen species occurs near Gly-329
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Biol. Chem. 274 1999 3222-5226

Author Title of Article
A. Makino Photosynthesis and plant growth at elevated levels of CO2
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 40 1999 999-1006

Author Title of Article
T. Mae Rubisco: Photosynthesis and its protein turnover
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Biological Science 5 1999 79-87

Author Title of Article
K. Ogawa Effects of glutamine on the induction of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in cultured spinach cells
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Plant Physiol. 154 1999 46-50

Author Title of Article
Y. Yanagawa Purification and characterization of the 26S proteasome from cultured rice cells
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Science 149 1999 33-41

Author Title of Article
K. Sueyoshi Effects of inhibitors for signaling components on the expression of the genes for nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in excised barley leaves
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 45 1999 1015-1019

Author Title of Article
K. Kurotani Light-regulated expression of the gene for C4-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in maize: Destabilization of mRNA by okadaic acid
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 40 1999 423-430

Author Title of Article
T. Furumoto cDNA cloning and characterization of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a bundle sheath cell-type specific enzyme
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Mol. Biol. 41 1999 301-311

Author Title of Article
H. Kaminaka Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA for an Fe-superoide dismutase in rice (Oryza sativa L. )
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 63 1999 302-308

Author Title of Article
N. Mitsukawa Moleculr cloning and characterization of a cysteine-rich 16.6-kDa prolamin in rice seeds
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63 1999 1851-1858

Author Title of Article
N. Mitsukawa Amino acid sequencing and cDNA cloning of rice seed storage proteins, the 13kDa prolamins, extracted from type I protein bodies
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Biotechnology 16 1999 103-113

Author Title of Article
H. Kaminaka Cloning and characterization of manganese-superoxide dismutase gene from rice (accession No. AB026725)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 121 1999 1057

Author Title of Article
J. Satoh Developmental stage-specific multi-subunit plastid RNA polymerases (PEP) in wheat
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant J 18 1999 407-416

Author Title of Article
K. Morikawa Circadian-regulated expression of a nuclear-encoded plastid sigma factor gene (sigA) in wheat seedlings
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
FEBS Lett. 451 1999 275-278

Author Title of Article
M. Obara High content of cytosolic glutamine synthetase dose not accompany with a high activity of the enzyme in rice (Oryza sativa L) leaves of indica cultivars during the life span
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Physiol. Plant. 108 2000 11-18

Author Title of Article
S. Kojima Analysis of a promoter for NADH-glutamate synthase gene in rice (Oryza sativa): Cell-type specific expression in developing organs of transgenic rice plants
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27 2000 787-793

Author Title of Article
S. Kojima Nucleotide sequence of a genomic DNA (Accession No. AB037664) and a cDNA (Accession No. AB037595) encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase in Sasanishiki, a leading cultivar of rice (Oryza sativa L) in northern Japan. (PGR 00-048)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 122 2000 1459

Author Title of Article
K. Nakano Organ and cellular localization of asparagine synthetase in rice plants
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 41 2000 874-880

Author Title of Article
M. Hayashi AtPex14p maintains peroxisomal functions by determining protein targeting to all plant peroxisomes
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
EMBO J. 19 2000 5701-5710

Author Title of Article
A. K. Tobin Cellular compartmentation of nitrogen metabolism in cereals
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Exp. Bot.   200# in press

Author Title of Article
M. Obara Mapping of QTLs associated with cytosolic glutamine synthetase and NADH-glutamate synthase in rice (Oryza sativa L. )
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Exp. Bot.   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
M. Takahashi1 Nitrite reductase gene enrichment improves assimilation of nitrogen dioxide in Arabidopsis
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol.   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
K. Shimizu Presence of an SAR-like sequence in junction regions between an introduced transgene and genomic DNA of cultured tobacco cells: its effect on transformation frequency
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Journal   2001 in press

Author Title of Article
A. Makino Whole-plant growth in transgenic rice plants with decreased content of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase under different CO2 partial pressures
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27 2000 1-12

Author Title of Article
H. Nakano Relationship between the suppression of photosynthesis and starch accumulation in the pod-removed bean
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27 2000 167-173

Author Title of Article
K. Ohashi Growth and carbon utilization in rice plants under conditions of physiologically low temperature and irradianc
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27 2000 99-107

Author Title of Article
A. Makino Photosynthesis, plant growth and N allocation in transgenic rice plants with decreased Rubisco under CO2 enrichment
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Exp. Bot. 51 2000 383-389

Author Title of Article
K. Ogawa Co-regulation of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in cultured spinach cells
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Plant Physiol. 157 2000 299-306

Author Title of Article
Y. Ueno Immunological analysis of the phosphorylation state of maize C4-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase with specific antibodies raised against a synthetic phosphorylated peptide
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant J. 21 2000 17-26

Author Title of Article
Y. Saijo Over-expression of a single Ca2+-dependent protein kinase confers both cold and salt/drought tolerance on rice plants
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant J. 23 2000 319-327

Author Title of Article
T. Furumoto Isolation and charactrization of cDNAs for differentially accumulated transcripts between mesophyll cells and bundle sheath strands of maize leaves
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 41 2000 1200-1209

Author Title of Article
A. Ombodi Effects of band applications of polyolefin-coated fertilizers on the nutrtional quality of garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa L. )
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Tohoku J. Agric. Research 50 2000 63-69

Author Title of Article
A. Ombodi Improvment of nitrogen use efficiency of tendergreen mustard grown in the field during rainy seasons by using polyolefin-coated urea
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Tohoku J. Agric. Research 51 2000 1-6

Author Title of Article
A. Ombdi Effects of polyolefin-coated fertilizers on the nutritional quality of spinach
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Plant Nutrition 23 2000 1495-1504

Author Title of Article
A. Ombdi Broadcast application versus band application using polyolefin-coated fertilizer on green peppers grown in the field
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
J. Plant Nutrition 23 2000 1485-1493

Author Title of Article
A. Ombdi Effects of a band application of polyolefin-coated diammonium phosphate on the nutritional quality of rhubarb and Swiss chard
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Int. J. Horticultural Science 6 2000 39-42

Author Title of Article
A. Ombdi Reducing nitrate content in lettuce using polyolefin-coated fertilizers
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Int. J. Horticultural Science 6 2000 35-38

Author Title of Article
M. Tanabe Production and analysis of transgenic C3-C4 intermediate Moricandia arvensis expressing maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Biotechnology 17 2000 93-98

Author Title of Article
L. Pan Nucleoside diphosphate kinase required for coleoptile elongation in rice
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Physiol. 122 2000 447-452

Author Title of Article
M. Kawai Coleoptile senescence of rice (Oryza sativa L. )
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Annals of Botany 86 2000 405-414

Author Title of Article
T. Shiina Chloroplast tubules visualized in transplastomic plants expressing green fluorescent protein
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 41 2000 275-278

[Reference Books]
Author Title of Book
K. Izui Protein Phosphorylation in Plants
Publisher Year Pages
Imprime a l'Universite de Paris Sud, Orsay, France 1997  

Author Title of Book
T. Inui Advances in chemical conversions for mitifating carbon dioxide
Publisher Year Pages
Elsevier, Amsterdam 1998 699

Author Title of Book
K. Tanaka Stress Responses of Photosynthetic Organisms
Publisher Year Pages
Elsevier, Amsterdam 1998 53-68

Author Title of Book
T. Yamaya Challenge of Plant and Agricultural Sciences to the Crisis of Biosphere on the Earth in the 21st Century
Publisher Year Pages
Biotechnology Intelligence Unit, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, U. S. A. 2000 191-198

Author Title of Book
T. Yamaya Plant Genetic Engineering vol 3: Improvement of Major Food Crops
Publisher Year Pages
Associated Publishing Co., India 200# in press

Author Title of Book
H. Morikawa Air Pollution and Biotechnology in Plants
Publisher Year Pages
Springer-Verlag 200# in press

Author Title of Book
H. Morikawa Phytoremediation: Transformation and Control of Contaminants
Publisher Year Pages
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2001 in press

Author Title of Book
T. Mae Programmed Cell Death and Related Processes in Plants
Publisher Year Pages
Academic Press 2001 in press

Author Title of Book
S. Morita Air Pollution and Biotechnology in Plants
Publisher Year Pages
Springer-Verlag 2001 in press


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