Summary of Research Project Results Under the JSPS FY2000
"Research for the future Program"



1.Research Institution Kyoto University
 
2.Research Area Life Sciences
 
3.Research Field Mechanisms of Plant Responses to Environment and Application to Biotechnology
 
4.Term of Project FY1996〜FY2000
 
5.Project Number 96L00603
 
6.Title of Project Analysis and application of genes responsive to biological stresses in plants

7.Projetct Leader
Name Institution,Department Title of Position
Kazuyuki Mise Kyoto University, Graduate School of Agriculture Associate Professor

8.Core Members

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Masayuki Ishikawa Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Agriculture Associate Professor
Tomonori Shiraishi Okayama University, Faculty of Agriculture Professor
Junji Takabayashi Kyoto University, Graduate School of Agriculture Associate Professor

9.Cooperating Researchers

Names Institution,Department Title of Position
Yuichiro Watanabe University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Agriculture Associate Professor
Kazuo Watanabe Kinki University, Faculty of Agriculture Associate Professor
Hiroshi Otani Tottori University, Faculty of Agriculture Professor

10.Summary of Research Results

In this project, for the purpose of stable supply of food in the 21st century, we have aimed to produce transgenic plants resistant to biological stresses by using new biotechnology. Most of the biological stresses against plants are pathogenic microorganisms and insects. Therefore, we have focused on producing transgenic plants resistant to them. First, we used genetic or molecular biological approaches to identify host factors that are present in plant cells and presumably involved in plant virus infection. Some of the host factor genes were cloned and their nucleotide sequences were determined. We revealed that each factor binds to viral proteins involved in viral replication or cell-to-cell movement. By regulating expression of the genes, we expect to produce virus-resistant plants. Second, a signal transmission cascade leading to host defense responses was investigated with exogenous signal molecules, an elicitor and a suppressor of a fungal pathogen. Our findings showed that a rapid and AOS-dependent defense occurs in a plant-specific and most exterior organelle, cell wall. Moreover, we successfully cloned a binding protein (receptor) for these signal molecules that exist in plant cell wall. Mirror resonance detection with IAsys demonstrated that the affinity of the suppressor to a recombinant protein of the receptor is higher than that of the elicitor, elucidating the dominant action of the suppressor on induction of the defense and accessibility to the receptor. Finally, in tritrophic systems consisting of plants, herbivores and carnivorous natural enemies of herbivores, we clarified multifunctional aspects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in plant-carnivore, plant-herbivore and plant-plant interactions. For example, herbivore-induced plant volatiles emitted from plants infested by arthropodal herbivores activated the defense genes in neighbouring uninfested plants. This is the first result clearly showing the plant-plant interactions in tritrophic contexts. The results indicate the presence of infochemically-mediated communication networks in tritrophic systems in nature.

11.Key Words

(1)Biotechnology、(2)Plant protection、(3)Plant virus
(4)Replicase、(5)Cell-to-cell movement、(6)Phytopathogenic fungus
(7)Defense response、(8)Tritrophic system、(9)Infochemicals

12.References

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Plant Biotechnology 16 1999 225-230

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Ikusyugaku Kenkyuu 1 1999 223-231

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Plant Biotechnology 17 2000 1-16

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Plant Cell Physiol. 38 1997 698-706

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Plant Cell Physiol. 38 1997 792-803

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Plant Cell Physiol. 39 1998 1245-1249

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Plant Cell Physiol. 40 1999 88-95

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J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 66 2000 123-127

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Eur. J. Biochem.   2000 (in press)

Author Title of Article
Toyoda et al. Potentiation of phytoalexin accumulation in elicitor-treated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum) by a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor
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J. Phytopathol.   2000 (in press)

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Ozawa et al. Isolation of a bacteriolytic gene of bacteriophage P4282 that infects Ralstonia solanacearum
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Mol. Gen. Genet   2001 (in press)

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Taguchi et al. HarpinPsta from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci is defective and deficient in its gene expression and HR-inducing activity
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J. Gen Plant Pathol. 67 2001 (in press)

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Plant Science   2001 (in press)

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Plant Cell Physiol. 42 2001 (in press)

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J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 67 2001 (in press)

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Kodama et al. 3,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, an infection-inhibiting factor from Pyrus pyrifolia induced by infection with Alternaria alternata
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Curr. Genet. 35 1999 647-656

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Singh et al. Purification and biological characterization of host-specific SV-toxins from Stemphylium vesicarium causing brown spot of European pear
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Phytopathology 89 1999 947-953

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Singh et al. Effects of host-selective SV-toxin from Stemphylium vesicarium, the cause of brown spot of European pear plants, on ultrastructure of leaf cells
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J. Phytopathol. 148 2000 87-93

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Yamamoto et al. (+)-Catechin acts as an infection-inhibiting factor in strawberry leaf
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Phytopathology 90 2000 595-600

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Johnson et al. Cloning and characterization of a cyclic peptide synthetase gene from Alternaria alternata apple pathotype whose product is involved in AM-toxin synthesis and pathogenicity
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Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 13 2000 742-753

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Johnson et al. A PCR-based method to specifically detect Alternaria alternata apple pathotype (A. mali), the causal agent of Alternaria blotch of apple
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Phytopathology 90 2000 973-976

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Otani Host recognition by plant pathogens and role of host-specific toxins
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J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 66 2000 278-280

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Salamiah et al. Genetic analysis of pathogenicity and host-specific toxin production of Alternatia alternata tomato pathotype by protoplast fusion
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Journal of General Plant Pathology 67 2001 7-14

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Noritake et al. Nitric oxide induces phytoalexin accumulation in potato tuber tissue
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Plant Cell Physiol. 37 1996 257-277

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Doke et al. The oxidative burst protects plants against pathogen attack: mechanism and role as an emergency signal for plant bio-defense-a review
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Gene 179 1996 45-51

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Senda et al. A cytosolic phospholipase A2 from potato tissues appears to be patatin
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Plant Cell Physiol. 37 1996 347-353

Author Title of Article
Takemoto et al. Identification of Chithinase and osmotic-like protein as actin-binding proteins in suspension-cultured potato cells
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Plant Cell Physiol. 38 1997 441-448

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Park et al. Physiological mechanisms of a sub-systemic oxidative burst triggered by elicitor-induced local oxidative burst in potato tuber slices
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Plant Cell Physiol. 39 1998 1218-1225

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Park et al. Induction of a sub-systemic oxidative burst by elicitor-stimulated local oxidative burst in potato plant tissue: a possible systemic signaling in systemic acquired resistance
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Plant Sci. 138 1998 197-208

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Senda et al. Effect of mastparan on phospholypase A2 activity in potato tubers treated with fungal elicitor
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Plant Cell Physiol. 39 1998 1080-1086

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Takemoto et al. Effect of cytocharacine D on defence responses of potato tuber discs treated with hyphal wall components of Phytophthora infestans.
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  141 1999 219-226

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Takemoto et al. Molecular cloning of a defense-response-related cyrochrome P450 gene from tobacco
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Plant Cell Physiol. 40 1999 1232-1242

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Yoshioka et al. cDNA cloning of sesquiterpene cyclase and squaren synthase and expression of the genes in potato tuber infected with Phytophthora infestans
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Plant Cell Physiol. 40 1999 993-998

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Miura et al. Plasma membrane perturbation in association with calcium ion movement followed by fungal elicitor-stimulated oxidative burst and defense gene activation in potato tuber. 65:447-453. (1999)
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Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Jpn. 65 1999 447-453

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Furuse et al. Involvement of actin filament association in hypersensitive reaction cells. 54: 51-61. (1999)
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Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 54 1999 51-61

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Katou et al. A 51kDa protein kinase of potato activated with hyphal wall components from phytophthora infestans.
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Plant Cell Physiol. 40 1999 825-831

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Doke The Oxidative burst in plant response to enfection stress-Emergency signal
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KASEAA 37 1999 800-806

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Takemoto et al. Isolation of the gene for EILP, an elicitor-inducible LRR receptor-like protein, from tobacco by differential display
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Plant Cell Physiol. 41 2000 458-464

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Ikegawa et al. Accumulation of diferulic acid during the hypersensitive resposne in oat leaves and it's role in enhanced resistance to cell-wall degrading enzymes
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Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 48 1996 245-255

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Don et al. Population structure of the rice blast fungus in Japan examined by DNA fingerprinting
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Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 65 1999 15-24

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Urashima et al. Molecular analysis of the wheat blast population in Brazil with a homolog of retrotransposon MGR583
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Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 65 1999 429-436

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Don et al. Population structure of the rice blast pathogen in Vietnam
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Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 65 1999 475-479

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Kusaba et al. Genetic diversity in Pyricularia isolates from various hosts revealed by polymorphisms of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the distribution of the MAGGY retrotransposon
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Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 65 1999 588-596

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Nakayashiki et al. Degenerate MAGGY elements in a subgroup of Pyricularia grisea: a possible example of successful capture of a genetic invader by a fungal genome
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Mol. Gen. Genet. 261 1999 958-966

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Nakayashiki et al. Transposition of the retrotransposon MAGGY in heterologous species of filamentous fungi
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Genetics 153 1999 693-703

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Kato et al. Pathogenicity, mating ability and DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms of Pyricularia populations isolated from Gramineae, Bambusideae and Zingiberaceae Plants. 66:30-47.
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J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 66 2000 30-47

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Tada et al. Signal mediators for phytoalexin production in defense response of oats elicited by victorin as a specific elicitor
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J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 66 2000 185-190

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Murakami et al. Analysis of host species specificity of Magnaporthe grisea toward wheat using a genetic cross between isolates from wheat and foxtail millet
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Phytopathology 90 2000 1060-1067

Author Title of Article
Eto et al. Comparative analyses of the distribution of various transposable elements in Pyricularia and their activity during and after the sexual cycle
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Mol. Gen. Genet. 264 2001 565-577

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Nakayashiki et al. Methylation is not the main force repressing the retrotransposon MAGGY in Magnaporthe grisea
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Nucl. Acids Res. 29 2001 1278-1284

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Tada et al. Induction and signaling of an apoptotic response typified by DNA-laddering in the defense response of oats to infection and elicitors
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Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact.   2001 (in press)

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Farman et al. Analysis of the structure of the AVR1-CO39 avirulence locus in virulent rice-infecting isolates of Magnaporthe grisea
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Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact.   2001 (in press)

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Takabayashi and Dicke Plant-carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants
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Trends in Plant Science 1 1996 109-113

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Ohara et al. Oviposition Kairomone in the cuticular wax of host larvae, Pseudaletia separata, toward its parasitic wasp, Cotesia kariyai
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Applied Entomology and Zoology 31 1996 271-277

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Shimoda et al. Response of predatory insects Scolothrips takahashii toward herbivore-induced plant synomone in both laboratory and field conditions
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Journal of Chemical Ecology 23 1997 2033-2048

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Maeda et al. Factors affecting the resident time of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari:Phytoseiidae) in a prey patch
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Applied Entomology and Zoology 33 1998 573-576

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Dicke et al. Plant-phytoseiid interactions mediated by herbivore-induced plant volatiles: Variation in production of cues and in responses of predatory mites
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Experimental and Applied Acarology 22 1998 311-333

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Yano et al. Factors determining the host range of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (1). -A method for quantifying host acceptance-
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Experimental and Applied Acarology 22 1998 595-601

Author Title of Article
Takabayashi et al. Plant Effects on Parasitoid Foraging: Differences among Two Tritrophic Systems
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Biological Control 11 1998 97-103

Author Title of Article
Horikoshi et al. Cotesia glomerata female wasps use fatty acids from plant-herbivore complex in host searching
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J. Chem. Ecol. 23 1998 1505-1515

Author Title of Article
Maeda et al. Response of the predatory mite, Amblyseius womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae), toward herbivore-induced plant volatiles: variation in response between two local populations
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Appl. Entomol. Zool. 34 1999 449-454

Author Title of Article
Sato et al. Pieris rapae females avoid oviposition on Rorippa indica plants infested by conspecific larvae
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Applied Entomology and Zoology 34 1999 333-337

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Sato et al. Effect of herbivore species on host searching of a parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
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Applied Entomology and Zoology 34 1999 459-461

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Shiojiri et al. Flight response of parasitoid toward plant-herbivore complexes: a comparative study of two parasitoid-herbivore systems on cabbage plants
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Applied Entomology and Zoology 35 2000 87-92

Author Title of Article
Takabayashi et al. Presence of oily droplets from the dorsal setae of Pieris rapae larvae
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Applied Entomology and Zoology 35 2000 115-118

Author Title of Article
Fujiwara et al. Effects of host-food plant species on parasitization rates of Mythmna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by a parasitoid, Cotesia kariyai (Hymenoptera: Braconicae). 35:131-136. (2000)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Entomology and Zoology 35 2000 131-136

Author Title of Article
Ozawa et al. Involvement of jasmonate- and salicylate-related signaling pathways for the production of specific herbivore-induced volatiles in plants
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Plant and Cell Physiology 41 2000 391-398

Author Title of Article
Arimura et al. Herbivory-induced volatiles elicit defence genes in lima bean leaves
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Nature 6795 2000 512-515

Author Title of Article
Ikegami et al. The quiescent period of the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae), as on avoidance mechanism against rain
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Applied Entomology and Zoology 35 2000 339-343

Author Title of Article
Maeda et al. The effect of rearing condition on the olfactory response of predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Amblyseius womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Entomology and Zoology 35 2000 345-351

Author Title of Article
Arimura et al. Comprehensive responses in lima bean leaves induced by herbivore-induced volatiles
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Biochemical Biophysical Research Communication 277 2000 305-310

Author Title of Article
Shiojiri et al. Herbivore-species-specific interactions between crucifer plants and parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) that are mediated by infochemicals present in areas damaged by herbivores
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Entomology and Zoology 35 2000 519-524

Author Title of Article
Fijiwara et al. Oviposition preference on a host-infested plant affects flight and antennal searching behavior of Cotesia kariyai toward the host-plant complex
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 97 2000 251-256

Author Title of Article
Takabayashi et al. Induced response of tomato plants against injury by green and red strains of Tetranychus urticae
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Experimental and Applied Acarology 24 2000 377-383

Author Title of Article
Ozawa et al. Lotus japonicus infested with herbivorous mites emits volatile compounds that attract predatory mites.
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Journal of Plant Research 113 2000 427-433

Author Title of Article
Maeda et al. Effects of daily periodicity in the emission of Tetranychus urticae-induced kidney bean leaf volatiles on the behavioral response of T. urticae and its predatory mite Amblysieus womersleyi
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Experimental and Applied Acarology 24 2001 415-425

Author Title of Article
Maeda and Takabayashi Time course in the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles and its attractiveness to Phytoseius persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) according to the change of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) density
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Applied Entomology and Zoology 36 2001 47-52

Author Title of Article
Shimoda and Takabayashi Migration of specialist insect predators to exploit patchily distributed spider mites
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Population Ecology   2001 (in press)

Author Title of Article
Shiojiri et al. Infochemically mediated tritrophic interaction webs on cabbage plants
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Population Ecology   2001 (in press)

Author Title of Article
Fukushima et al. Learning of host-infested plant volatiles in Cotesia kariyai Watanabe
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Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata   2001 (in press)

Author Title of Article
Arimura et al. Plant-Plant Interactions Mediated by Volatiles Emitted from Plants Infested by Spider Mites
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Biochemical Systematic and Ecology   2001 (in press)

Author Title of Article
Maeda et al. Variation in the olfactory response of predatory mite, Amblyseius womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae), of 15 populations to herbivore-induced plant volatiles
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Experimental and Applied Acarology   2001 (in press)

Author Title of Article
Yano et al. Trade-offs in performance on different plants may not restrict the host plant range of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch.
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Experimental and Applied Acarology   2000 (in press)

Author Title of Article
Takahashi et al. Response of specialist and generalist insect predator to plant odors induced by spider mites in Japanese pear orchards
Journal Volume Year Pages Concerned
Experimental and Applied Acarology   2000 (in press)

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