|Date||Destination and Details of Visit (Research Discussions, Lectures, Tours, etc.)|
|October 1, 2003||Depart Paris (Charles de Gaulle Airport).|
|October 2||Arrive at the Kansai International Airport. (Pickup at airport at 13:20 by Jo Yoshida and Katsuya Nagamori.) Check in at Rakuto-so Hotel.|
|October 3||Courtesy visit to the President of Kyoto University (1:30 to 2:20 PM). Presentation of medal. Courtesy visit to the Dean of the Graduate School of Letters at Kyoto University.|
|October 4-5||Research assembly with Masayoshi Hirota, Professor Emeritus, and the young university researchers (at the Faculty of Letters).
The assembly was attended by several people, including Jo Yoshida, Katsuya Nagamori, Nobuko Akiyama and Yuka Mochizuki.
|October 7||Lecture meeting at the Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University.
Theme: "De Corneille à Balzac : de la jeunesse héroïque à la jeunesse ambitieuse (From Corneille to Balzac: From Heroic Youth to Ambitious Youth)" (4:30 to 6:30 PM). Location: Underground Main Conference Room at the Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University.
|October 8||Preliminary meeting. Attendance of a performance at the Minamiza Theater.|
|October 9||Dinner party with Pierre Fournier, director of l'Institut franco-japonais du Kansai (Attended by Jo Yoshida, Shigeki Tominaga, François Lachaud, etc.)|
|October 10-18||Stay in Kyoto.|
|October 18||Travel from Kyoto to Tokyo. (Pickup in Tokyo by Professor Tetsuya Shiokawa from the University of Tokyo.)|
|October 19||Attendance of a Kabuki performance at the Kabuki-za Theater, with Professor Shiokawa.|
|October 20||Lecture meeting at the Maison franco-japonaise à Tokyo, co-sponsored by Kyoto University, the Nihon University College of Art, the Société franco-japonaise d'art et d'archéologie (Franco-Japanese Society of Art and Archeology). Lecture by Professor Fumaroli, organized by Prof. Saburo Kimura. Theme: "Le comte de Caylus, de Watteau à Winckelmann: les origines françaises du néo-classicisme européen" (The Count of Caylus, from Watteau to Winkelmann: The French Origins of European Neoclassicism) (5:30 to 7:30 PM)|
|October 21||Lecture meeting at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Tokyo (Head school at Hongo) Coordinator: Professor Tetsuya Shiokawa. Theme: "Chateaubriand et Rousseau: histoire d'une fascination" (Chateaubriand and Rousseau: The History of a Fascination.) Reception followed.|
|October 22||Dinner party at the French Embassy held by the French Ambassador to Japan.|
|October 23||Spend the night in Tokyo.|
|October 24||Travel from Tokyo to Kyoto.|
|October 25||Lecture at the autumn conference of the Société
japonaise de langue et littérature françaises
(Japanese Society of French Language and Literature).
Location: Osaka University of Foreign Studies. Theme: "Chateaubriand et Tocqueville: Deux aristocrates libéraux devant la démocratie" (Chateaubriand and Tocqueville: Two Liberal Aristocrats Ahead of Democracy) (1:00 to 2:15 PM).
Attendance of a Bunraku Japanese traditional puppet play. Location: Abeno Kintetsu Theater.
|October 26-29||Stay in Kyoto.|
|October 30||Final meeting to exchange opinions with members from Kyoto University (Professor Yoshida).|
|October 31||Depart from the Kansai International Airport, arrive at the Charles de Gaulle Airport.|
October 3 (Fri.)
Courtesy visit to the Dean of the Faculty of Letters of Kyoto University, and then to the President of Kyoto University.
October 4 (Sat.)
An informal meeting was held with researchers into 17th century French literature at Kyoto University's Faculty of Letters. In addition to Professor Fumaroli, five people were in attendance: Masayoshi Hirota, Jo Yoshida, Tadako Ichimaru, Yuka Mochizuki and Katsuya Nagamori.
At the meeting, after everyone had introduced themselves and given a simple explanation of their particular fields of research, Professor Emeritus Hirota outlined the special seminar that would start the next day (the main objective of the seminar is to introduce some of the research into 17th century French literature in Japan to Professor Fumaroli), and proposed how the seminar would progress, to which Professor Fumaroli agreed.
October 5 (Sun.)
The special seminar, "Problems of research into 17th Century French Literature" was held at Kyoto University Faculty of Letters. In addition to Professor Fumaroli, a total of seven people attended: Masayoshi Hirota (Professor Emeritus at Kyoto University), Nobuko Akiyama (Assistant professor at Aoyama Gakuin University), Tadako Ichimaru (Lecturer at Seijo University), Yuka Mochizuki (Assistant professor at Musashi University), Katsuya Nagamori (Assistant Professor at Kyoto University), and Jean-Christophe Sampieri (Foreign Professor at Kyoto University).
Four papers were presented at the seminar, with Professor Emeritus Hirota: "Introducing the Complete Works of Molière in Japanese" and "Molière and the Court Ballet" by Nobuko Akiyama, "Introducing the Mazarinades Collection in University of Tokyo Library and Creating a Catalog" by Tadako Ichimaru, "the Style of Port-Royal−Debate on the New Testament of Mons" by Yuka Mochizuki, and "Tragic Catharsis−Theory and Practice" by Katsuya Nagamori, and Professor Fumaroli gave his opinions and advice to each. Professor Fumaroli's analysis, drawn from his broad point of view and profound academic knowledge, deftly picked out the academic significance of each participant's research, to provide a new vantage point for each. The seminar, which drove forward amidst a relaxed atmosphere owing to the concerted efforts of Professor Emeritus Hirota, led to significant debate as well as advancing the current objective of introducing the latest research into 17th century French literature in Japan to Professor Fumaroli, and was extremely successful, giving a new perspective to Japanese researchers.
October 7 (Tue.)
The special lecture by Professor Fumaroli "De Corneille à Balzac: de la jeunesse héroïque à la jeunesse ambitieuse (From Corneille to Balzac: From Heroic Youth to Ambitious Youth)" was held at the Faculty of Letters of Kyoto University, and was moderated by Jo Yoshida (Professor at Kyoto University) and Katsuya Nagamori (Assistant Professor at Kyoto University).
At first glance, a comparison between the novelist Balzac, who lived during the Restoration and the "Monarchie de Juillet," and Corneille, the dramatist who lived during the reign of Louis XIII, may appear surprising. However, it is only when we consider literature not merely as a mirror held up to society, but as an expression of universal humanity that the emotions wrought by works of literature separated by times and national boundaries can be explained. Incidentally, the fact that a young central character is beloved in literature is also a universal phenomenon. The dichotomy between social and political norms and youthful power is always extremely interesting. In addition, commonalities that transcend time and genre to symbolize youth can also be seen. Let us use the examples of the young people who appear in Corneille's plays and Balzac's novels.
In truth, the social and cultural distance that separates the 17th century dramatist and 19th century novelist is not that great. Both were born into the bourgeoisie, and both shared a noble viewpoint. For Balzac, the noble viewpoint supplied a critical focus on post-revolutionary society, which was dominated by lower-class ambition, avarice, and cold calculation. For both authors, high-class ethics−tolerance, honor, and loyalties born of friendship−were provided naturally to young people of good birth, but in Balzac's novels, society's rules are determined by hypocritical and bourgeois cold calculation, so the young provincial nobles who journey to Paris cannot help but adapt to the cold, calculating attitudes by which they are surrounded. On the other hand, in Corneille, these ethics are always better respected than a calculating attitude, and his characters avoid the temptations of selfish calculation and power. Corneille's early comedies transposed the shepherds of the pastorale to the urban stage, but from his virgin work Mélite (Melite) to La Place Royale (The Royal Palace), the gradual loss of simple rustic happiness due to the encroachment of bourgeois elements into the pastoral world is clearly visible. However, the protagonists of Corneille's plays recapture their happiness through subjective freedom to become héros. (e.g., Le Cid.) Further, the love, which is tested to the limits by youth and nobility, is separated in Corneille into people who are truly "noble" (généreux), and those who aren't, but in Balzac, love is a method wrought by society, so such classification per se is impossible.
The two authors can be said to share many points in common regarding the rich and diverse spirit they entrusted to youth, in spite of the differences in the societies they depicted. Rubempré and Lastignac, among others, would not be out of place as characters in a play by Corneille. Moreover, they can be understood perfectly today by young people in any country. Literature transcends time to achieve universality by focusing clearly on the nature of humanity.
Professor Fumaroli touched on the traditions of the moralistes (writers who observe and research humanity) in French literature at the start of his lecture, and it could be said that Professor Fumaroli described examples of the best traditions of French literature research, melding both fine sensitivity and acute observation in his academic knowledge. Additionally, many of the people gathered in the auditorium were researchers into 17th century French literature and Balzac specialists, and they contributed to a vigorous question-and-answer (Q&A) session after the lecture.
October 20 (Mon.)
Professor Fumaroli gave a lecture entitled, "Les origines françaises du néo-classicisme européen: le comte de Caylus, de Watteau à Winckelmann (The French Origins of European neo-classicism: The Count of Caylus, from Watteau to Winckelmann)" at the Maison franco-japanese in Tokyo (with simultaneous interpreting). (Sponsored jointly by Kyoto University and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science: the French Embassy, the Franco-Japanese Society of Art and Archeology, the Maison Franco-Japanese, and the Nihon University College of Arts) The lecture was moderated by Professor Saburo Kimura of Nihon University, and the commentators were Assistant Professor Masafumi Aoyama of University of Air, and Ms. Kanako Azuchi, a graduate of Nihon University graduate school and doctor of arts.
It is generally thought that 18th century neo-classicism centered on Rome between 1760 and 1770, being an artistic movement stimulated by the excitement surrounding the excavations of Pompeii from 1738 and Herculanum from 1740, and that its first adherents were the British and Germans living in Rome at the time.
In reality, it was a reaction to the Rococo style that had dominated since the end of the 17th century, and efforts by the artists, sculptors, and architects of Versailles to recreate their beloved artistic fields−classical design−had already started in Paris during the 1730s.
The central character to this movement was Count Caylus (1692 - 1765). A mock classical Greek style gradually formed in France through his tireless efforts in the world of artists and art lovers, as well as the royal academy, which went on to influence the fields of architecture, historical paintings, sculpture, decorative art, and furniture. It was Caylus who brought about changes in Parisian tastes well before neo-classicism, which conquered all of Europe, became popular. It was Caylus who commissioned a translation of the first works by Winckelmann (1717 - 1768), and who promptly evaluated the German art historians, who later spearheaded neo-classicism. In truth, Winckelmann was highly dependent on Caylus's work as an archaeologist. Also, it was in the studio of Vien, an artist supported by Caylus, that David, the greatest neo-classical artist, honed his skills.
Caylus was also a friend of Watteau (1684 - 1721), who embodied the rococo style, but despite being well suited to personal celebrations, he never hesitated to refuse this style as unsuitable for exalting the grandeur of the French monarchy. Caylus was well suited to Louis XV through his numerous lectures and publications spanning a quarter of a century, his overseeing of building projects, his activities at the Académie, and his patronage of artists, and he strove to expand more refined tastes that harmonized Roman grandeur with Greek refinement throughout France.
During this lecture, the audience's understanding was greatly assisted by the use of slides. Further, there was also a Q&A session after the lecture, moderated by Professor Kimura, which dealt with such issues as the relationship between Caylus and the art critic Diderot, and 18th century European archaeology and classical art history. Regarding the role of Caylus in art history, which has always been marginalized to date, Professor Fumaroli gave a very significant lecture from the point of view of introducing to Japanese researchers an element of research that has been largely ignored to date.
October 21 (Tue.)
Professor Fumaroli's lecture, "Chateaubriand et Rousseau: Histoire d'une fascination (Chateaubriand and Rousseau: History of an Fascination)" was held at University of Tokyo Faculty of Letters, and was moderated by Professor Tetsuya Shiokawa of Tokyo University.
Chateaubriand (1768 - 1848), who was born into a noble family in the strongly Catholic region of Brittany (Bretagne) and the philosopher Rousseau (1712 - 1778), who was a low-born Calvinist, are often seen as polar opposites. However, Chateaubriand's generation was also the generation inflamed by Rousseau's definitive work, Les Confessions (The Confessions) (1782 - 1789). For the young Chateaubriand, who instinctively opposed the powers of the nobility, Rousseau's ideas were attractive, and having awoken to his talents as a poet, it is no surprise that he was attracted to Rousseau's éloquence des passionsiEloquence of Passionsj. Even after losing his family during the Great Fear and experiencing the dangers of Rousseau's utopia, Chateaubriand did not try to blame Rousseau for the violent revolution. Instead of denying Rousseau, he reread the alienation of homme de la nature (Man in Nature), Rousseau's core conception, in light of the suffering of humanity as described by Pascal, and was drawn to the world view of Christianity.
Mémoires d'outre-tombe (Memoirs from Beyond the Grave) are said to be an experiment to meld tradition with the new literary style created by Rousseau. After the demise of the Ancien Régime (1830), the disappointed Chateaubriand attempted to find his own identity within his memories of childhood and youth, modeled on Les Confessions and Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaire (The Reveries of the Solitary Walker, also translated as The Ethics of Solitude). However, Chateaubriand succeeded in depicting in narrative poetry an era that should rightly be called a watershed in history, to which he himself was a witness, through a combination of his personal memories and memories shared by all citizens, the confession by the first person, and the ideas written by third person.
In France, Professor Fumaroli has just published a major work, Chateaubriand − Poésie et terreur (Chateaubriand − Poetry and Fear) based on lectures he gave at the Collège de France, and today's lecture also touched in part on this theme. The audience, which filled the hall to capacity, were deeply impressed by Professor Fumaroli's eloquence. After the lecture, a lively Q&A session took place, touching on Chateaubriand's experiences in England, and the relationship between Chateaubriand and Baudelaire.
October 25 (Sat.)
Professor Fumaroli gave a special lecture, "Chateaubriand et Tocqueville: Deux aristocrates libéraux devant la démocratie (Chateaubriand and Tocqueville: Two Liberal Aristocrats Ahead of Democracy)", which was moderated by Katsuya Nagamori (Assistant Professor at Kyoto University), at the 2003 autumn conference of the Société japonaise de langue et littérature françaises@ (Japanese Society of French Language and Literature), which was held at Osaka University of Foreign Studies.
The poet Chateaubriand, who left us Memoirs from Beyond the Grave, and the historian Tocqueville, who wrote L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution iThe Ancien Régime and the Revolution), have never been compared before. Chateaubriand has been exclusively the subject of literary research, and Tocqueville's work has mainly been highly regarded as a "modern classics" in the fields of politics and sociology. This lecture clarifies the close familiarity between the two, and their mutual effects on each other, as well as placing the ideas of both in a historical context.
Tocqueville (1805-1859), who was the great-grandson of Malesherbes, and Chateaubriand (1768-1848) were related by marriage, but the commonality they shared, that they were both liberal aristocracy, forged even deeper bonds between them. The young Tocqueville was influenced by his majestic "uncle" in various fields such as literature and politics, while Chateaubriand felt strongly that his own sensibilities were reinforced academically by his "nephew", and introduced Tocqueville to his friends, as well as working tirelessly to see the younger man admitted to the Académie Françaises. There was an interest in budding democratic politics and the new continent, engendered by the "uncle's" Voyage en Amérique (Voyages in America) (written from 1797 to 1799, and published in 1827), which acted as the starting point for the "nephew's" debut work, De la démocratie en Amérique (American Democracy) (1835), and conversely, the dangers inherent in democracy (totalitarianism, for example), pointed to by Tocqueville in American Democracy Volume II (1840) greatly influenced Chateaubriand, who was writing Memoirs from Beyond the Grave (begun in 1809, serialized partly in magazines from 1848 to 1850, and published as one volume in 1899).
Both Chateaubriand and Tocqueville left the world of politics after the breakdown of the political system, after both had been active politicians and diplomats. After their political careers had ended, political and historical examination of societies changed by revolution became a common theme for both of them, but Chateaubriand's concepts of political freedom, which were greatly influenced by Rousseau, were relative to the ideas of Pascal, and the foundation of social equality was to be found in Christian providence. By contrast, Tocqueville adopted the viewpoint espoused by Chateaubriand in Etudes historiques (Historical Studies) (1831) and Memoirs from Beyond the Grave−namely, that the concept of liberty was not created in the 18th century, but had lived continuously throughout France's long history−in his book, The Ancient Regime and the Revolution (1856), which is based on mammoth literary examination. The two liberal aristocrats left a warning for later generations of the problems of reconciling freedom with equality in works they wrote in later life, almost as a last will and testament.
At the start of his lecture, Professor Fumaroli cautioned members of the Japanese Society for French Language and Literature against the specialization of research to prevent being bound by narrow concepts of "literature", and to understand writers from various aspects; political, religious, philosophical, and ethical. Thus, the lecture itself was an actual example of thinking, expertly melding both a broad viewpoint and profound knowledge, to transcend the boundaries of literary research.
This was the very first time for researchers working in the humanities to be invited to Kyoto University as part of the "JSPA Award for Eminent Scientists" project of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. There was no precedence for this event, so the utmost effort was put into preparations in order to realize maximum benefit from Prof. Marc Fumaroli's visit to Japan. Throughout the approximately two years during which we worked with Prof. Fumaroli on the arrangements for the visit, many of our discussions transpired through e-mail. Prof. J. Yoshida of Kyoto University also visited the Collège de France in June 2002, where he discussed, directly with Prof. Fumaroli, the details of Prof. Fumaroli's visit to Japan. As a result of this effort, more was achieved during Prof. Fumaroli's visit than could have been expected, which proved exceptionally beneficial to Kyoto University. Below, we itemize the main points of what was achieved during Prof. Fumaroli's stay in Japan.
(1) Encouragement of Young Researchers
During Prof. Fumaroli's first stay in Japan in 1993 at the invitation of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Prof. Masayoshi Hirota, who was at the time chief professor of the Department of French Literature, Faculty of Letters of Kyoto University, introduced Prof. Fumaroli to students majoring in 17th century French ideology and literature. Though lecture meetings, etc., Prof. Hirota promoted the uniqueness of the work of Prof. Fumaroli. For Prof. Fumaroli's recent visit to Kyoto University, Professor Emeritus Hirota, who retired in March 2002, arranged to gather together young researchers working at the forefront of research throughout Japan for a special seminar at Kyoto University featuring Prof. Fumaroli. At the seminar, Prof. Fumaroli offered perceptive comments and critiques for each of the research presentations, giving the researchers the opportunity to seek valuable guidance from the professor.
(2) Discussions and Exchange of Opinions with Research Specialists
Prof. Fumaroli originally specialized in 17th century French ideology and literature, but in recent years, he has expanded his range of interests to include discussions covering a broad range of fields, such as 18th and 19th century literature, fine art, philosophy and history. Accordingly, during his time at Kyoto University, Prof. Fumaroli did not limit his discussions to the narrow fields of classical literature, rather, his discussions with research specialists and instructors related to history and art history also unfolded based on his profound knowledge and unique perspectives, as Prof. Fumaroli provided perceptive replies to the questions presented. In particular, Prof. Fumaroli's explanations of the significance of utilizing simultaneous approaches from various fields related to one subject, rather than restricting one's approach to individual, narrow fields of research, were exceptionally motivating. Prof. Fumaroli strongly emphasized how this method requires steady and diligent efforts to examine and thoroughly comprehend available literature. Thus, even research specialists were able to benefit from this opportunity to meet and closely interact with Prof. Fumaroli, and the event proved to be immeasurably beneficial.
(3) Internationalization of Kyoto University as a Whole
Prof. Fumaroli is a man of intellect who is representative of modern-day France in terms of both his insight and influence. His recent invitation to Kyoto University was deemed to have important and far-reaching influence on Japan as a whole, extending well beyond the university itself. As such, Kyoto University, as the receiving organization, organized and planned for collaborative events at major research bases in the Tokyo area, including the University of Tokyo and the Maison de Franco-Japonaise à Tokyo, and also worked to maximize participation in events such as the autumn conference of the Société Japonaise de Langue et Littérature Françaises. These efforts allowed Kyoto University as a whole to exhibit its leadership to a number of universities and academic societies throughout Japan. They also provided us with a foothold for the promotion of international exchange and interaction with France, with Prof. Fumaroli in an advisory capacity, which is exceptionally beneficial to Kyoto University in terms of the internationalization of its research efforts.