Report of the JSPS Award for Eminent Scientists in 2007
- Name of the Invited Eminent Scientist
Wilfried H. Brutsaert
William L. Lewis Professor
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University
- Period of Invitation for FY2007
From May 27, 2007 through December 11, 2007 (199 days)
- Accommodations, Office, and Title
||Foreign Scholars' Residence of the University of Tsukuba
|| Advanced Research Laboratory of the University of Tsukuba
||Visiting Foreign Research Fellow
- Schedule in FY2007
May 28-December 11, 2007
Professor Brutsaert stayed at the University of Tsukuba, and engaged in the following activities:
- Joint research on the changes in groundwater storage over the past 50 years within watersheds in Mongolia and in upland catchments in the Kanto region;
- Advice assistance on the translation and publication of the Japanese version of "Hydrology" by Professor Brutsaert;
- Technical and scientific advice to junior scientists;
- Series of lectures in a course "Boundary Layer Hydrology" of Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences;
Also, during this period, he has given a number of lectures at the following research institutions:
In addition, he has actively served as a member of the Editorial Board of Hydrological Research Letters, the official brief communications journal of the Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources, in matters of review and general policy.
- Institute of Industrial Sciences, University of Tokyo (Oct. 29)
- Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama (Nov. 13)
- Institute of Low Temperature, Hokkaido University (Nov. 16-Nov.19)
December 11, 2007
Departure to the U.S.
- Activities and their impacts
This was the third and final year of his visit to Japan started in 2005, as an Eminent Scientist sponsored by the JSPS award. To put his activities in the separate visits in the overall context, in what follows this report also presents a broader summary of his activities over the past three years.
(1) Visits to related research institutions and lecture series
As originally scheduled, the visits by Professor Brutsaert covered eight different organizations and one academic meeting within Japan, to participate in discussions and to interact with researchers and graduate students at these institutions. At the same time, he gave the following formal lectures to audiences during his visits (see appendix 1).
- August 4, 2005, Special Lecture at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources (held at the University of Tsukuba) on "The Relevance of the Complementary Concept in Resolving the Evaporation Paradox: An Update"
- November 10, 2005, Nagoya University (Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center); "Objective Indications of Global Evaporation Trends in the Second Half of the 20th Century"
- February 23, 2006, Nagoya University (Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center); "Pitfalls of Some Currently Used Operational Methods to Estimate Evaporation"
- April 19, 2006, Kyoto University (Disaster Prevention Research Institute); "Indications of Increasing Terrestrial Evapotranspiration Over the Past Fifty Years"
- July 7, 2006, University of Tsukuba (Terrestrial Environment Research Center, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences); "Indications of an Accelerating Hydrologic Cycle During the Second Half of the 20th Century"
- July 13, 2006, Tohoku University (Graduate School of Science); "Indications of an Accelerating Hydrologic Cycle During the Second Half of the 20th Century"
- October 29, 2007, University of Tokyo (Institute of Industrial Science); "Has Global Dimming Caused a Slowdown of the Hydrologic Cycle?"
- November 13, 2007, Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology; "Has Global Dimming Caused a Slowdown of the Hydrologic Cycle?"
- November 19, Hokkaido University (Institute of Low Temperature); "Has Global Dimming Caused a Slowdown of the Hydrologic Cycle?"
- November 27-28, University of Tsukuba (Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences), Guest lecture series on "Boundary-Layer Hydrology"
(2) Advice to junior scientists
As originally planned, Prof. Brutsaert played an active role to encourage and promote research activities of junior scientists and graduate students and to help them to report the results of their studies formally in scientific manuscripts and journal articles. These activities helped them to earn MS or Ph.D degrees in some cases and resulted in the publication of several scientific papers in international journals. Below is the list of scientists to whom the contribution of Prof. Brutsaert was notable.
At the University of Tsukuba
- Shinichi Iida on his preparation of the paper "Change of evapotranspiration due to succession from Japanese red pine to evergreen oak", which was published in the Journal of Hydrology.
- Ayumi Kotani on her preparation of the paper "Seasonal variation of surface fluxes and scalar roughness of suburban land covers", which was published in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology.
- Ayumi Kotani on her preparation of the paper "Variance methods to estimate regional heat fluxes with aircraft measurements in the Convective Boundary Layer", which was published in the Journal of Hydrology.
- Hiroki Iwata on the preparation of his Ph.D thesis "Surface renewal analysis of sensible heat transfer in the unstable roughness sublayer over a forest canopy". He is expected to receive the Ph.D degree in the spring of 2008.
At Nagoya University
- Hiroki Tanaka on his paper "Turbulent flux observations at the tip of a narrow cape on Miyako Island in Japan's Southwestern Islands"
- Nakako Kobayashi on her paper on "Nighttime Transpiration Observed over a Larch Forest in Hokkaido, Japan", which was published in Water Resources Research.
- Li Wei on her paper entitled "Turbulence spectra in the atmospheric surface layer over the Loess Plateau in China", which was published in Boundary- Layer Meteorology.
- Masanori Nishikawa on the general planning his Ph.D research
- Ayumi Kotani on her paper "Concise formulae for the atmospheric correction of thermal hemispherical radiation measured near the ground surface", which has been submitted to Water Resources Research.
- Y. Liu on his study plan on equilibrium evaporation.
(3) Advice on the translation of the "Hydrology" book
As planned, "Hydrology" by Prof. Brutsaert published in 2005 by Cambridge University Press, was translated successfully into Japanese with his help and guidance. This translated version is scheduled to be published in the spring of 2008 by Kyoritsu Syuppan Co., Ltd. A Chinese translation is also being carried out and is scheduled to be published later in 2008 in China. As a result, this Japanese version together with the English original and the upcoming Chinese version will undoubtedly enhance further communication and better understanding among scientists who master these three languages (see appendix 2).
(4) Guest editor of a special issue of Journal of Hydrology
Prof. Brutsaert worked closely with scientists at the University of Tsukuba, to serve as guest editor of the RAISE special issue of the Journal of Hydrology; RAISE stands for the Rangelands Atmosphere-Hydrosphere-Biosphere Interaction Study Experiment in Northeastern Asia, an international research project organized mainly by the University of Tsukuba. This special issue was published as Volume 333, Issue 1 of the Journal of Hydrology in January of 2007 (see appendix 3).
(5) Joint research on changes in groundwater storage over the past 50 years within watersheds in Mongolia and in the Kanto region
As a collaborative research, Professor Brutsaert worked closely with scientists at host universities; among them, the following studies have been submitted to the Hydrological Sciences Journal (International Association of Hydrological Sciences) and to the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) (see appendix 4).
- Is Mongolia's groundwater increasing or decreasing? The case of the Kherlen River Basin
- Recent low-flow and groundwater storage changes in upland watersheds of the Kanto region
(6) Editorial board member of Hydrological Research Letters
Since the summer of 2007, he has served as an Editorial Board member of Hydrological Research Letters. Because this electronic journal had just been started by the Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources, aiming at rapid international communication among scientists in water resources and hydrology, many details of editorial procedures still needed to be worked out. For this purpose, the vast experience of Professor Brutsaert, with various stages of the editorial procedures and with the scientific publications process of other international journals in general, have been of immeasurable help in the decision making by the Editorial Board (see appendix 5).
(7) External review of Nagoya University
In FY 2005, he served as a review committee member of the Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Center and submitted a report summarizing his observations, assessment and recommendations on the structure and inner workings of this research center (see appendix 6).
- Contributions of eminent scientist to the host organizations
As summarized above, his extended stay in Japan included a wide range of activities. In particular, he has directly worked with junior scientists including postdoctoral fellows and graduate students to give advice on their research papers and on their Ph.D studies. This was very effective as those young scientists do not have sufficient experience in intensive English communications on their researches. Also, because they have a clear goal of completing their research papers and submitting them to international journals, it was a good opportunity for them to learn how to organize their manuscript in a logical order and in effective English. This was possible because of the vast knowledge and experiences of Professor Brutsaert who has authored over 200 research papers.
Also in his lectures presented during his stay at various relevant research institutions, we were able to witness how he imparted a strong impact among the attending participants through his well-organized, logical presentation, with clear English. Since the topics dealt with are at the leading edge and forefront achievements in this field, audiences were able to learn and get a clear idea on future research directions.
One of the aims of the JSPS Award is to promote "internationalization" of host universities. Although his presence alone would not have achieved this, since there are already many international visitors at Japanese host universities, his activities as outlined above were clearly instrumental and critical in accomplishing this goal. This was all the more the case, because of the wide background and career of Professor Brutsaert, which include among many other activities, the presidency of the Hydrology Section of the American Geophysical Union.
(1) Seminars and Lectures
- A letter appreciating his lecture by Tokyo University
- Article summarizing his lecture at the annual scientific meeting of the Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources (p.719-720, Journal of Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources, Vol. 18, No.6, 2005)
- Review article summarizing his lecture at the annual scientific meeting of the Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources ("The Relevance of the Complementary Concept in Resolving the Evaporation Paradox: An Update", p.343-349, Journal of Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources, Vol. 19, No.5, 2006)
(2) "Hydrology" book
- Web site announcing forthcoming publication of "Hydrology" the Japanese version (Kyoritsu Syuppan Co., Ltd, http://www.kyoritsu- pub.co.jp/kinkan/shosai/kin_suimon.html)
- Foreword (by the translator and Prof. Brutsaert)
(3) Guest editor of the Journal of Hydrology
- RAISE special issue of Journal of Hydrology (Volume 333, Issue 1, 2007)
(4) Research papers
- "Is Mongolia's groundwater increasing or decreasing? The case of the Kherlen River Basin"
- "Recent low-flow and groundwater storage changes in upland watersheds of the Kanto region"
(5) Editorial Board member of Hydrological Research Letters
- Hydrological Research Letters brochure (http://tm.kuciv.kyoto-u. ac.jp/~hwintl/)
(6) External review of Nagoya University
- Annual Report for FY 2005 of the Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Center of Nagoya University.