Report on the JSPS Award for Eminent Scientists
Name: Kazuo Kadowaki
Title and Affiliation: Professor, University of Tsukuba
- Invited eminent scientist (name, title and affiliation, nationality)
Alexei Alexeivich Abrikosov, Distinguished Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory, USA
- Duration of the stay
Oct.11. 2005 - Oct.26. 2005
- Hosting environment (accommodation, research institute, status in the host institute)
Okura Frontier Hotel, Tsukuba Epocal and others
Kadowaki Lab. in the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences and others
Special Invited Guest
- Schedule during the stay (date, research activities, name of the places to visit, and description of the visits )
Oct. 12th, 2005
Arrival at Narita
Visiting University of Tsukuba, meeting on the whole schedule
Conferment ceremony of honorary doctor, and memorial lectures at the University of Tsukuba
The title of his lecture: "Type II Superconductors and the Vortex Lattice"
Round-table discussion, "Abrikosov and the Era" at University of Tsukuba
Oct. 15th, 16th
Lecture at Tokyo University of Science, at Metropolitan hotel
The title of his lecture: "Unusual Magnetic Transition and Its Consequences"
Visit at Hitachi Ltd. Fundamental Labs. and discussion meeting
Moving to Kyoto, visiting Kyoto University and delivering lecture
The title of his lecture: Superconductivity and Modern State
Oct. 19th, 20th
Visiting the International Institute for Advanced Studies
Discussion meeting with Prof. J. Kanamori, the Head of the institute
Moving from Kyoto to Sendai, visiting Tohoku University, and delivering lecture
The title of his lecture: Theoey of High Temperature Superconductivity
Oct. 22nd, 23rd
Moving from Sendai to Tokyo and visiting at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation "Miraikan" and delivered a general lecture
Writing reports on his lectures, meetings and round-table discussions
Visiting JSPS and brief conferment ceremony with general discussion
Departure from Narita
- Description of and results from the invitation
With Prof. Abrikosovís intention, the visiting schedule in Japan is determined to be mainly lectures in the Japanese major universities contributing to superconductivity research. Therefore, the period of invitation was for 15 days, which are very short. Because of this, the schedule became so dense and tight, but it was completed without problem.
He started his activity immediately next day after his arrival. To begin with on October 13th he has first delivered his memorial lecture at the University of Tsukuba, and also participated as a main speaker in the round-table discussion meeting next day (October 14th). The second one was given at Tokyo University of Science (October 15th), the third one at Kyoto University (October 18th) and the fourth one was given at Tohoku University (October 21st). He delivered his lectures day after day in a broad spectrum of interest from type II superconductors, which were the main subject of the Nobel Prize, to his most recent work on high temperature superconductivity. It was impressive that he extends his theory of high temperature superconductivity by his own ideas, which though are not popular in Japan, and leads young researchers to the front of research, although he is as old as 77 years old. The lecture halls were full of young researchers and students as well as professors everywhere he went.
Outside university, he visited Dr Tonomuraís Lab. at the Fundamental Research Labs. in Hitachi Ltd and had a discussion concerning with their most recent experimental results on the vortices that was for the first time predicted by Prof. Abrikosov by the electron microscope with the world highest resolution. Moreover, on 23rd of October he visited the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation "Miraikan" and delivered a general public lecture about superconductivity, and accepted questions from audience and replied to those. He enjoyed this event with the general audience very much.
During his stay in Japan he is very serious and eager to do discussions and lectures even at the age of 77. He showed us a deep impression that he is as the top ranking scientist in the world. It was very interesting, because the stories he gave were sometimes unexpected, disregarding formalities. In particular, at the occasion of informal round-table panel discussion meeting "Abrikosov and the Era", held at 14th of October at the international congress hall at the University of Tsukuba, he spoke in great detail about his own researches, his attitude for sciences during his violently moving life spend with his respected teacher Lev. Landau in the age of former Soviet unions over more that four hours and unveiled many of Russian secrecies that has never been released. It was so interesting to hear about why so many eminent physicists have been from Landau institute, why it is even now successful after passing half a century after Landauís tragic death by car accident. By considering all such things, it seems to cast strong implication to the present our research attitudes and how to perform education of younger generation in Japan. These stories will be published in a book.
The developing process of theory of superconductivity has played an important contribution to construction of the concept of modern physics. To answer the question of what is superconductivity and why it is so requires most basic concept such as the Ginzburg Landau theory, BCS theory, etc. Especially, the GL theory was first developed for superconductivity, and showed a great power in understanding it properly, then, it was applied to the other fields of physics. Under extremely poor conditions in Japan after the World War II, it is surprising that a few of enormously important works have been emerged in Japan in the field of superconductivity and the related fields, with recognition of the importance of superconductivity during the period extending its concept to the other fields. It is now unfortunate that these people have already retired and have almost forgotten in the society, so that it is becoming rather difficult to inherit such an important history. Dr. Abrikosovís visit was important to remind us that situation in Japan. We think that on the occasion of his visit, exchange of information has become deeper and stronger.
We would like to hearty thank the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for giving us a great chance to invite Dr. Alexei A. Abrikosov and to gave us a chance to reconsider science in Japan throughout the 20 century.
- Contribution by the invitee to the host institute (e.g. inspiration to young scientists, internationalization of a host institute as a whole, etc.)
As was emphasized in the Dr. Abrikosovís memorial lecture, Prof. K. Kadowaki of the University of Tsukuba has been in a good relation with Dr. Abrikosov in the field of high temperature superconductivity after the break-through about 20 years ago. At the international conferences as well as at the international collaboration plans such as the Core-to-Core program in JSPS, especially, he is an important member of it and has been playing a crucial role there. Therefore, soon after he received his Nobel Prize in Physics, we intended to invite him to University of Tsukuba in already year of early 2004, however, it was not possible because of his busy schedule. This was made possible this year. Surprisingly, this was for the first time for him to come to Japan. The honorary doctor was given from the University of Tsukuba, and the memorial lectures and party were held on the occasion of this visit.
Five lectures in the memorial lecture including the one by Dr. Abrikosov were given by English. About 600 audience were gathered in the lecture hall. The titles and the lecturers are as follows:
- A. A. Abrikosov (Distinguished Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory, USA)
Title: "Type II Superconductors and the Vortex Lattices"
- A. Tonomura (Hitachi fellow, Hitachi Fundamental Lab., Hitachi Ltd.)
Title: "Real-Time Observation of Abrikosov Vortex Lattices Using Electron Waves"
- A. Bouzdine (Professor of University of Bordeaugx, France)
Title: "Vortex Attraction and Vortex Intermediate State: Is it Possible?"
- M. Tachiki (Professor Emeritus, Tohoku University)
Title: "Ecmission of Terahertz Electromagnetic Waves by means of Vortex Flow"
- S. Tanaka (Director General, International Superconducting Technology Center)
Title: "Progress of Superconductivity Technologies in Japan"
Students at the graduate school of Pure and Applied Sciences are obliged to make their reports on the scientific impressions after these lectures. According to them they were strongly influenced by the originality of his work and the rationalized way of thinking of Dr. Abrikosov. We think that this opportunity gave a strong impact to the students as well as younger generation. This was considered as a part of Dr. Abrikosovís contribution to the education of the graduate school in our University. Although owing to the time limitation, it was not possible to have a chance to meet and talk to students directly, we are sure that his visit at Tsukuba and his lecture were very useful and exciting for students and young generation.
There was more interesting event in the next day, which was round-table discussion "Abrikosov and the Era", inviting important people who has been playing an important key role in the development of Japanese research on superconductivity; Prof. H. Ezawa (Prof. Emeritus, Gakushuin University) as a moderator, Prof. S. Nakajima (Prof. Emeritus, University of Tokyo), Prof. F. Takano (Prof. Emeritus, University of Tsukuba), Prof. M. Tachiki (Prof. Emeritus, Tohoku University), Prof. M. Ishikawa (Prof. Emeritus, University of Tokyo). The discussion was very interesting, starting with a story of his childhood, a school boy, and his circumstances at the beginning of university student, young researcher, then, continued to a story of Landau, the Landau institute, exiling to the USA, and settlement in the USA, etc. all dynamic movement over a half a century, and lasted more than four hours. Over 150 audiences not only from near Tsukuba area but also from Tokyo area have participated in the discussion.
This sort of event has never been held even in Russia as well as in the USA. All stories not only this discussion but also including his whole stay in Japan will be published elsewhere.
In this way, Dr. Abrikosovís visit at University of Tsukuba gave tremendous impact in the scientific society and its Japanese development. It was without doubt extremely influential to especially young researchers through his live voices in his lecture as well as listening to his stories. We are strongly confident that he contributed to the development of Japanese science by four lectures at four universities, i.e., University of Tsukuba, Tokyo University of Science, Kyoto University, and Tohoku University, and in addition, a small public lecture at The National Museum of Engineering Science and Innovation (Miraikan) during his visit at Japan, though it was short and only 15 days.
At the 25th of October, Dr. Abrikosov and us have visited at JSPS office. It was very useful for us (Dr. Abrikosov, Dr. G. Crabtree, Prof. M. Tachiki, and myself, K. Kadowaki) to have a brief meeting with Mr. M. Ono to discuss about international collaborations, especially international relation on the superconductivity research between Japan and USA. Finally, Dr. Abrikosov and us expressed his and our sincere thanks to JSPS and the JSPS Award for eminent scientist program, which is unique among others and is playing an important role on the international friendship, international goodwill and international development.